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New ഀ Zealand

     New ഀ Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising ഀ two main landmasses, (the North Island and the South Island,) and numerous smaller ഀ islands, most notably Stewart Island/Rakiura and the Chatham Islands. The indigenous ഀ Mori named New Zealand Aotearoa, commonly translated as The Land of the Long ഀ White Cloud. The Realm of New Zealand also includes the Cook Islands and Niue ഀ (self-governing but in free association); Tokelau; and the Ross Dependency (New ഀ Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica).

ഀ      New Zealand is notable for its geographic isolation, ഀ situated about 2000 km (1250 miles) southeast of Australia across the Tasman ഀ Sea, and its closest neighbours to the north are New Caledonia, Fiji and Tonga. ഀ During its long isolation New Zealand developed a distinctive fauna dominated ഀ by birds, a number of which became extinct after the arrival of humans and the ഀ mammals they introduced.

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Geography ഀ and environment

(pictures ഀ NZ.1.01)

     New ഀ Zealand comprises two main islands, the North and South Islands, TeIka a Maui ഀ and Te Wai Pounamu respectively in Mori, and a number of smaller islands, located ഀ near the centre of the water hemisphere. Cook Strait ഀ (see pictures NZ.1.01), 20 km wide at its narrowest point, separates the North ഀ and South Islands. The total land area, 268,680 square kilometres (103,738 sq ഀ mi), is a little less than that of Italy and Japan, and a little more than the ഀ United Kingdom. The country extends more than 1,600 kilometres (1,000 miles) ഀ along its main, north-north-east axis, with approximately 15,134 km (9,404 mi) ഀ of coastline. The most significant of the smaller inhabited islands include ഀ Stewart Island/Rakiura; Waiheke Island, in Auckland's Hauraki Gulf; Great Barrier ഀ Island, east of the Hauraki Gulf; and the Chatham Islands, named R?kohu by Moriori. ഀ The country has extensive marine resources, with the seventh-largest Exclusive ഀ Economic Zone in the world, covering over four million square kilometres (1.5 ഀ million sq mi), more than 15 times its land area.

(pictures ഀ NZ.1.02)

     The ഀ South Island (see pictures NZ.1.02) is the largest ഀ land mass of New Zealand, and is divided along its length by the Southern Alps, ഀ the highest peak of which is Aoraki/Mount Cook at 3754 metres (12,320 ft).

     There ഀ are 18 peaks over 3,000 metres (10,000 ft) in the South Island. The North Island ഀ is less mountainous but is marked by volcanism. The highest North Island mountain, ഀ Mount Ruapehu (2,797 m / 9,177 ft), is an active cone volcano. The dramatic ഀ and varied landscape of New Zealand has made it a popular location for the production ഀ of television programmes and films, including the Lord of the Rings trilogy ഀ and the The Last Samurai.

     The ഀ country owes its varied topography, and perhaps even its emergence above the ഀ waves, to the dynamic boundary it straddles between the Pacific and Indo-Australian ഀ Plates (see pictures NZ.1.03).

(pictures ഀ NZ.1.03)

     New Zealand ഀ is part of Zealandia, a continent nearly half the size of Australia that is ഀ otherwise almost completely submerged. About 25 million years ago, a shift in ഀ plate tectonic movements began to pull Zealandia apart forcefully, with this ഀ now being most evident along the Alpine Fault and in the highly active Taupo ഀ volcanic zone. The tectonic boundary continues as subduction zones east of the ഀ North Island along the Hikurangi Trench to continue north of New Zealand along ഀ the Kermadec Trench and the Tonga Trench which is mirrored in the south by the ഀ Puysegur Trench.


Presentation ഀ № 1 "Ingles New Zealand"


     The ഀ latitude of New Zealand, from approximately 34 to 47°S, corresponds closely ഀ to that of Italy in the Northern Hemisphere. However ഀ (see pictures NZ.1.04), its isolation from continental influences and exposure ഀ to cold southerly winds and ocean currents give the climate a much milder character. ഀ


ഀ ഀ

(pictures ഀ NZ.1.04)

     The ഀ climate (see pictures NZ.1.05) throughout the country ഀ is mild and temperate, mainly maritime, with temperatures rarely falling below ഀ 0°C (32°F) or rising above 30°C (86°F) in populated areas. Historical maxima ഀ and minima are 42.4°C (108.3°F) in Rangiora, Canterbury and -21.6°C (-6.9°F) ഀ in Ophir, Otago. Conditions vary sharply across regions from extremely wet on ഀ the West Coast of the South Island to semi-arid (K?ppen BSh) in the Mackenzie ഀ Basin of inland Canterbury and subtropical in Northland. Of the main cities, ഀ Christchurch is the driest, receiving only 640 mm (25 in) of rain per year.

(pictures ഀ NZ.1.05)

     Auckland ഀ (see pictures NZ.1.06), the wettest, receives almost twice that amount. Auckland, ഀ Wellington and Christchurch all receive a yearly average in excess of 2000 hours ഀ of sunshine per annum. The southern and south-western parts of South Island ഀ have a cooler and cloudier climate, with around 1400-1600 hours; the northern ഀ and north-eastern parts of the South Island are the sunniest areas of the country ഀ and receive approximately 2400-2500 hours.

(pictures ഀ NZ.1.06)

Presentation ഀ № 2"Auckland - New Zealand"

Presentation ഀ № 3"Image of New Zealand"

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Culture

     Much of ഀ contemporary New Zealand culture is derived from British roots. It also includes ഀ significant influences from American, Australian and Mori cultures, along with ഀ those of other European cultures and - more recently - non-Mori Polynesian and ഀ Asian cultures. Large festivals in celebration of Diwali and Chinese New Year ഀ are held in several of the larger centres. The world's largest Polynesian festival, ഀ Pasifika, is an annual event in Auckland. Cultural links between New Zealand ഀ and the United Kingdom are maintained by a common language, sustained migration ഀ from the United Kingdom, and many young New Zealanders spending time in the ഀ United Kingdom on their "overseas experience" (OE). The music and ഀ cuisine of New Zealand are similar to that of Britain and the United States, ഀ although both have some distinct New Zealand and Pacific qualities.
ഀ      Mori culture has undergone considerable change ഀ since the arrival of Europeans; in particular the introduction of Christianity ഀ in the early 19th century brought about fundamental change in everyday life. ഀ Nonetheless the perception that most Mori now live similar lifestyles to their ഀ P?keh? neighbours is a superficial one. In fact, Mori culture has significant ഀ differences, for instance the important role which the marae and the extended ഀ family continue to play in communal and family life. As in traditional times, ഀ Mori habitually perform karakia to ensure the favourable outcome of important ഀ undertakings, but today the prayers used are generally Christian. Mori still ഀ regard their allegiance to tribal groups as a vital part of personal identity, ഀ and Mori kinship roles resemble those of other Polynesian peoples. As part of ഀ the resurgence of Mori culture that came to the fore in the late 20th century, ഀ the tradition-based arts of kapa haka (song and dance), carving and weaving ഀ are now more widely practiced, and the architecture of the marae maintains strong ഀ links to traditional forms. Mori also value their connections to Polynesia, ഀ as attested by the increasing popularity of waka ama (outrigger canoe racing), ഀ which is now an international sport involving teams from all over the Pacific.


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Sports

     Sport ഀ has a major role in New Zealand's culture, with the unofficial national sport ഀ of rugby (see pictures NZ.6.01) union being particularly ഀ influential. Other popular participatory sports include cricket, bowls, netball, ഀ soccer, motorsport, golf, swimming and tennis. New Zealand has strong international ഀ teams in several sports including rugby union, netball, cricket, rugby league, ഀ and softball. New Zealand also does traditionally well in the sports of rowing, ഀ yachting and cycling. The country is internationally recognised for performing ഀ well on a medals-to-population ratio at Olympic Games and Commonwealth Games.

     Rugby ഀ union, commonly referred to as rugby, is closely linked to the country's national ഀ identity. The national rugby team, the All Blacks, has the best win to loss ഀ record of any national team, and is well known for the haka (a traditional M?ori ഀ challenge) performed before the start of international matches. New Zealand ഀ is also well known for its extreme sports and adventure tourism. Its reputation ഀ in extreme sports extends from the establishment of the world's first commercial ഀ bungy jumping site at Queenstown in the South Island in November 1988. Mountaineering ഀ is also popular, with the country's most famous climber being the late Sir Edmund ഀ Hillary, the first person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.

(pictures ഀ NZ.6.01)

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Glossary

 


New - Zeland Glossary

 

 

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