ഀ ഀ Программаഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ

New ഀ Zealand

     New ഀ Zealand is an island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising ഀ two main landmasses, (the North Island and the South Island,) and numerous smaller ഀ islands, most notably Stewart Island/Rakiura and the Chatham Islands. The indigenous ഀ Mori named New Zealand Aotearoa, commonly translated as The Land of the Long ഀ White Cloud. The Realm of New Zealand also includes the Cook Islands and Niue ഀ (self-governing but in free association); Tokelau; and the Ross Dependency (New ഀ Zealand's territorial claim in Antarctica).

ഀ      New Zealand is notable for its geographic isolation, ഀ situated about 2000 km (1250 miles) southeast of Australia across the Tasman ഀ Sea, and its closest neighbours to the north are New Caledonia, Fiji and Tonga. ഀ During its long isolation New Zealand developed a distinctive fauna dominated ഀ by birds, a number of which became extinct after the arrival of humans and the ഀ mammals they introduced.

[ ഀ вернуться в начало документа ]

Geography ഀ and environment

(pictures ഀ NZ.1.01)

     New ഀ Zealand comprises two main islands, the North and South Islands, TeIka a Maui ഀ and Te Wai Pounamu respectively in Mori, and a number of smaller islands, located ഀ near the centre of the water hemisphere. Cook Strait ഀ (see pictures NZ.1.01), 20 km wide at its narrowest point, separates the North ഀ and South Islands. The total land area, 268,680 square kilometres (103,738 sq ഀ mi), is a little less than that of Italy and Japan, and a little more than the ഀ United Kingdom. The country extends more than 1,600 kilometres (1,000 miles) ഀ along its main, north-north-east axis, with approximately 15,134 km (9,404 mi) ഀ of coastline. The most significant of the smaller inhabited islands include ഀ Stewart Island/Rakiura; Waiheke Island, in Auckland's Hauraki Gulf; Great Barrier ഀ Island, east of the Hauraki Gulf; and the Chatham Islands, named R?kohu by Moriori. ഀ The country has extensive marine resources, with the seventh-largest Exclusive ഀ Economic Zone in the world, covering over four million square kilometres (1.5 ഀ million sq mi), more than 15 times its land area.

(pictures ഀ NZ.1.02)

     The ഀ South Island (see pictures NZ.1.02) is the largest ഀ land mass of New Zealand, and is divided along its length by the Southern Alps, ഀ the highest peak of which is Aoraki/Mount Cook at 3754 metres (12,320 ft).

     There ഀ are 18 peaks over 3,000 metres (10,000 ft) in the South Island. The North Island ഀ is less mountainous but is marked by volcanism. The highest North Island mountain, ഀ Mount Ruapehu (2,797 m / 9,177 ft), is an active cone volcano. The dramatic ഀ and varied landscape of New Zealand has made it a popular location for the production ഀ of television programmes and films, including the Lord of the Rings trilogy ഀ and the The Last Samurai.

     The ഀ country owes its varied topography, and perhaps even its emergence above the ഀ waves, to the dynamic boundary it straddles between the Pacific and Indo-Australian ഀ Plates (see pictures NZ.1.03).

(pictures ഀ NZ.1.03)

     New Zealand ഀ is part of Zealandia, a continent nearly half the size of Australia that is ഀ otherwise almost completely submerged. About 25 million years ago, a shift in ഀ plate tectonic movements began to pull Zealandia apart forcefully, with this ഀ now being most evident along the Alpine Fault and in the highly active Taupo ഀ volcanic zone. The tectonic boundary continues as subduction zones east of the ഀ North Island along the Hikurangi Trench to continue north of New Zealand along ഀ the Kermadec Trench and the Tonga Trench which is mirrored in the south by the ഀ Puysegur Trench.

Presentation ഀ № 1 "Ingles New Zealand"

     The ഀ latitude of New Zealand, from approximately 34 to 47°S, corresponds closely ഀ to that of Italy in the Northern Hemisphere. However ഀ (see pictures NZ.1.04), its isolation from continental influences and exposure ഀ to cold southerly winds and ocean currents give the climate a much milder character. ഀ

ഀ ഀ

(pictures ഀ NZ.1.04)

     The ഀ climate (see pictures NZ.1.05) throughout the country ഀ is mild and temperate, mainly maritime, with temperatures rarely falling below ഀ 0°C (32°F) or rising above 30°C (86°F) in populated areas. Historical maxima ഀ and minima are 42.4°C (108.3°F) in Rangiora, Canterbury and -21.6°C (-6.9°F) ഀ in Ophir, Otago. Conditions vary sharply across regions from extremely wet on ഀ the West Coast of the South Island to semi-arid (K?ppen BSh) in the Mackenzie ഀ Basin of inland Canterbury and subtropical in Northland. Of the main cities, ഀ Christchurch is the driest, receiving only 640 mm (25 in) of rain per year.

(pictures ഀ NZ.1.05)

     Auckland ഀ (see pictures NZ.1.06), the wettest, receives almost twice that amount. Auckland, ഀ Wellington and Christchurch all receive a yearly average in excess of 2000 hours ഀ of sunshine per annum. The southern and south-western parts of South Island ഀ have a cooler and cloudier climate, with around 1400-1600 hours; the northern ഀ and north-eastern parts of the South Island are the sunniest areas of the country ഀ and receive approximately 2400-2500 hours.

(pictures ഀ NZ.1.06)

Presentation ഀ № 2"Auckland - New Zealand"

Presentation ഀ № 3"Image of New Zealand"

[ ഀ вернуться в начало документа ]


     Much of ഀ contemporary New Zealand culture is derived from British roots. It also includes ഀ significant influences from American, Australian and Mori cultures, along with ഀ those of other European cultures and - more recently - non-Mori Polynesian and ഀ Asian cultures. Large festivals in celebration of Diwali and Chinese New Year ഀ are held in several of the larger centres. The world's largest Polynesian festival, ഀ Pasifika, is an annual event in Auckland. Cultural links between New Zealand ഀ and the United Kingdom are maintained by a common language, sustained migration ഀ from the United Kingdom, and many young New Zealanders spending time in the ഀ United Kingdom on their "overseas experience" (OE). The music and ഀ cuisine of New Zealand are similar to that of Britain and the United States, ഀ although both have some distinct New Zealand and Pacific qualities.
ഀ      Mori culture has undergone considerable change ഀ since the arrival of Europeans; in particular the introduction of Christianity ഀ in the early 19th century brought about fundamental change in everyday life. ഀ Nonetheless the perception that most Mori now live similar lifestyles to their ഀ P?keh? neighbours is a superficial one. In fact, Mori culture has significant ഀ differences, for instance the important role which the marae and the extended ഀ family continue to play in communal and family life. As in traditional times, ഀ Mori habitually perform karakia to ensure the favourable outcome of important ഀ undertakings, but today the prayers used are generally Christian. Mori still ഀ regard their allegiance to tribal groups as a vital part of personal identity, ഀ and Mori kinship roles resemble those of other Polynesian peoples. As part of ഀ the resurgence of Mori culture that came to the fore in the late 20th century, ഀ the tradition-based arts of kapa haka (song and dance), carving and weaving ഀ are now more widely practiced, and the architecture of the marae maintains strong ഀ links to traditional forms. Mori also value their connections to Polynesia, ഀ as attested by the increasing popularity of waka ama (outrigger canoe racing), ഀ which is now an international sport involving teams from all over the Pacific.

[ ഀ вернуться в начало документа ]


     Sport ഀ has a major role in New Zealand's culture, with the unofficial national sport ഀ of rugby (see pictures NZ.6.01) union being particularly ഀ influential. Other popular participatory sports include cricket, bowls, netball, ഀ soccer, motorsport, golf, swimming and tennis. New Zealand has strong international ഀ teams in several sports including rugby union, netball, cricket, rugby league, ഀ and softball. New Zealand also does traditionally well in the sports of rowing, ഀ yachting and cycling. The country is internationally recognised for performing ഀ well on a medals-to-population ratio at Olympic Games and Commonwealth Games.

     Rugby ഀ union, commonly referred to as rugby, is closely linked to the country's national ഀ identity. The national rugby team, the All Blacks, has the best win to loss ഀ record of any national team, and is well known for the haka (a traditional M?ori ഀ challenge) performed before the start of international matches. New Zealand ഀ is also well known for its extreme sports and adventure tourism. Its reputation ഀ in extreme sports extends from the establishment of the world's first commercial ഀ bungy jumping site at Queenstown in the South Island in November 1988. Mountaineering ഀ is also popular, with the country's most famous climber being the late Sir Edmund ഀ Hillary, the first person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.

(pictures ഀ NZ.6.01)

[ ഀ вернуться в начало документа ]



New - Zeland Glossary



[ ഀ вернуться в начало документа ]






ഀ ഀ ഀ 㰍ⴡ‭潧杯敬愠慮楬瑳ⴠ㸭਍猼牣灩㹴਍†昨湵瑣潩⡮ⱩⱳⱯⱧⱲⱡ⥭楻❛潇杯敬湁污瑹捩佳橢捥❴㵝㭲孩嵲椽牛籝晼湵瑣潩⡮笩਍†椨牛⹝㵱孩嵲焮籼嵛⸩異桳愨杲浵湥獴紩椬牛⹝㵬⨱敮⁷慄整⤨愻猽挮敲瑡䕥敬敭瑮漨Ⱙ਍†㵭⹳敧䕴敬敭瑮䉳呹条慎敭漨嬩崰愻愮祳据ㄽ愻献捲朽活瀮牡湥乴摯⹥湩敳瑲敂潦敲愨洬ഩ 素⠩楷摮睯搬捯浵湥ⱴ猧牣灩❴✬瑨灴㩳⼯睷⹷潧杯敬愭慮祬楴獣挮浯愯慮祬楴獣樮❳✬慧⤧഻ഊ 朠⡡挧敲瑡❥‬唧ⵁ㠱㐳㈰㜰ㄭⰧ✠畡潴⤧഻ 朠⡡猧湥❤‬瀧条癥敩❷㬩਍਍⼼捳楲瑰ാ㰊ⴡ‭潧杯敬愠慮楬瑳ⴠ㸭਍਍ℼⴭ慒楴杮䵀楡⹬畲挠畯瑮牥ⴭാ㰊捳楲瑰氠湡畧条㵥樢癡獡牣灩≴㰾ⴡഭ搊搽捯浵湥㭴慶⁲㵡✧愻㴫㬧㵲⬧獥慣数搨爮晥牥敲⥲樻㵳〱⼻⴯㸭⼼捳楲瑰ാ㰊捳楲瑰氠湡畧条㵥樢癡獡牣灩ㅴㄮ㸢ℼⴭ਍⭡✽樻✽渫癡杩瑡牯樮癡䕡慮汢摥⤨樻㵳ㄱ⼻⴯㸭⼼捳楲瑰ാ㰊捳楲瑰氠湡畧条㵥樢癡獡牣灩ㅴ㈮㸢ℼⴭ਍㵳捳敲湥愻㴫㬧㵳⬧⹳楷瑤⭨⨧⬧⹳敨杩瑨഻愊㴫㬧㵤⬧猨挮汯牯敄瑰㽨⹳潣潬䑲灥桴猺瀮硩汥敄瑰⥨樻㵳㈱⼻⴯㸭⼼捳楲瑰ാ㰊捳楲瑰氠湡畧条㵥樢癡獡牣灩ㅴ㌮㸢ℼⴭ਍獪ㄽ㬳⼯ⴭ㰾猯牣灩㹴猼牣灩⁴慬杮慵敧∽慪慶捳楲瑰•祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴㰾ⴡഭ搊眮楲整✨愼栠敲㵦栢瑴㩰⼯潴⹰慭汩爮⽵番灭昿潲㵭㤱㜰㌸∳琠牡敧㵴弢潴≰✾ഫ✊椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺搯⹣ㅣ戮⹤ㅡ琮灯洮楡⹬畲振畯瑮牥椿㵤㤱㜰㌸㬳㵴㤹樻㵳⬧獪ഫ愊✫爻湡㵤⬧慍桴爮湡潤⡭⬩∧愠瑬∽㼿㼿㼿䀿慍汩爮≵戠牯敤㵲〢•⬧਍栧楥桧㵴ㄢ∸眠摩桴∽㠸㸢尼愯✾㬩晩ㄨ㰱獪搩眮楲整✨✼✫ⴡ‭⤧⼻⴯㸭⼼捳楲瑰ാ㰊潮捳楲瑰㰾⁡慴杲瑥∽瑟灯•牨晥∽瑨灴⼺琯灯洮楡⹬畲樯浵㽰牦浯ㄽ〹㠷㌳㸢਍椼杭猠捲∽瑨灴⼺搯⹣ㅣ戮⹤ㅡ琮灯洮楡⹬畲振畯瑮牥樿㵳慮椻㵤㤱㜰㌸㬳㵴㤹•਍敨杩瑨∽㠱•楷瑤㵨㠢∸戠牯敤㵲〢•污㵴㼢㼿㼿㼿䵀楡⹬畲㸢⼼㹡⼼潮捳楲瑰ാ㰊捳楲瑰氠湡畧条㵥樢癡獡牣灩≴琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢ℼⴭ਍晩ㄨ㰱獪搩眮楲整✨ⴭ⬧㸧⤧⼻⴯㸭⼼捳楲瑰ാ㰊ⴡ⼭ 慒楴杮䵀楡⹬畲挠畯瑮牥ⴭാ ††††††††㰠䥄⁖摩搽癩敍畮戠捧汯牯⌽ㅦㅦㅦ猠祴敬∽䥖䥓䥂䥌奔›楶楳汢㭥圠䑉䡔›〱硰※佐䥓䥔乏›扡潳畬整※佔㩐ㄠ瀰㭸䠠䥅䡇㩔ㄠ瀰≸ാ ††††††††㰠慴汢⁥杢潣潬㵲昣昱昱‱散汬灓捡湩㵧‱散汬慐摤湩㵧‱楷瑤㵨ㄢ〰∥䠠楥桧㵴ㄢ〰∥戠牯敤㵲‰瑳汹㵥戢牯敤㩲瀱⁸挣捣捣⁣潳楬㭤㸢琼㹲琼⁤瑳汹㵥眢摩桴㌺〰硰※਍敨杩瑨㈺〵硰※潢摲牥ㄺ硰⌠捣捣捣猠汯摩∻ാ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰㸢ℼⴭ਍潧杯敬慟彤汣敩瑮㴠∠異ⵢ㠷㈷㌱㈱ㄹ㐴ㄴ㤹㬢਍⨯㌠〰㉸〵‬㼿㼿㼿‿㌱〮⸹〱⨠യ朊潯汧彥摡獟潬⁴‽㔢㐰ㄷ㌱〲∲഻朊潯汧彥摡睟摩桴㴠㌠〰഻朊潯汧彥摡桟楥桧⁴‽㔲㬰਍⼯ⴭാ㰊猯牣灩㹴਍猼牣灩⁴祴数∽整瑸樯癡獡牣灩≴਍牳㵣栢瑴㩰⼯慰敧摡⸲潧杯敬祳摮捩瑡潩⹮潣⽭慰敧摡猯潨彷摡⹳獪㸢਍⼼捳楲瑰㰾琯㹤⼼牴ാ㰊剔㰾䑔愠楬湧挽湥整⁲敨杩瑨㈽瀰⁸杢潣潬㵲挣挴挴㸴愼挠慬獳爽摥栠敲㵦⌢•湯汣捩㵫戢汣獯⡥㬩爠瑥牵慦獬㭥•㰾㹢㳼戯㰾愯㰾启㹄⼼剔ാ㰊琯扡敬ാ㰊䐯噉ാ ††††††㰠䍓䥒呐ാ †ഠऊ畦据楴湯戠汣獯⡥ഩऊൻऊ搉癩敍畮献祴敬搮獩汰祡㴠✠潮敮㬧਍紉਍††਍਍慶⁲獩佄⁍‽搨捯浵湥⹴敧䕴敬敭瑮祂摉㼠琠畲⁥›慦獬⥥഻瘊牡椠䥳㑅㴠⠠搨捯浵湥⹴污☦℠獩佄⥍㼠琠畲⁥›慦獬⥥഻瘊牡椠乳㑓㴠⠠潤畣敭瑮氮祡牥⁳‿牴敵㨠映污敳㬩਍慶⁲獩华㴠渠癡杩瑡牯愮灰慎敭㴠‽丢瑥捳灡≥഻ഊ昊湵瑣潩敧剴晥椨⥤笠਍椉⁦椨䑳䵏
ൻऊ慶⁲楤䵶湥⁵‽敧剴晥✨楤䵶湥❵㬩਍搉癩敍畮献祴敬琮灯㴠⠠獩华㼠眠湩潤⹷慰敧余晦敳⁴›潤畣敭瑮戮摯⹹捳潲汬潔⥰⬠〠഻ऊ楤䵶湥⹵瑳汹⹥楶楳楢楬祴㴠∠楶楳汢≥഻ऊ潭敶楒桧䕴杤⡥㬩਍ൽഊ ††††††㰠匯剃偉㹔਍ℼⴭ퀠⃥⃥敨摡ﯰ茶戠摯⁹ⴭാ㰊捳楲瑰琠灹㵥琢硥⽴慪慶捳楲瑰•牳㵣栢瑴獰⼺愯楰⹳潧杯敬挮浯樯⽳汰獵湯⹥獪㸢਍†汻湡㩧✠畲紧਍⼼捳楲瑰ാഊ㰊ⴡ‭ﴠ⃲⃣⃢⃬⳥⃠ﳲ￱⃠ㄫⴠ㸭਍朼瀺畬潳敮猠穩㵥洢摥畩≭㰾术瀺畬潳敮‾਍⼼呈䱍ാਊ਍