ഀ ഀ CANADAഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ




  ഀ          From ഀ its northern Arctic islands (see picture C.01) ഀ to the majestic mountains of the Western Cordillera and the windswept tip ഀ of Newfoundland, Canada encompasses an area of almost 4 million square miles ഀ (10 million square kilometers). It is the largest country in North America ഀ but its entire population of approximately 30 million is equivalent to that ഀ of California. Most people reside close to the US border and the vast expanse ഀ of remaining land forms one of the most extensive wilderness areas in the ഀ world.

(picture ഀ C.01)

     ഀ   Geographically, Canada is divided into six ഀ distinct regions: the Atlantic provinces, the interior lowlands, the Canadian ഀ Shield, the great plains, the western mountains and the Arctic archipelago. ഀ The largest of these is the Canadian Shield covering almost 50% of Canada's ഀ land mass. It forms a great arc around Hudson Bay and is roughly defined by ഀ the Atlantic, the St. Lawrence River, and the waterways that connect Lakes Huron, ഀ Superior, Winnipeg and Athabasca as well as the Great Slave and Great Bear Lakes. ഀ Although some highland areas exist, the Shield country consists mainly of low ഀ hills, countless lakes, marshes and rivers that were formed by the glacial erosion ഀ of ancient rocks. The rocky Shield topography of the Gulf coast of Labrador ഀ was described by early French explorer, Jacques Cartier, as '…being composed ഀ of stones and horrible rugged rocks; for along the north shore, I did not see ഀ one cart-load of earth…' Later, Samuel de Champlain wrote that the terrain he ഀ encountered along the Ottawa River was 'very barren and sterile' and 'far from ഀ attractive'.
ഀ      ഀ    Much of the Canadian Shield is occupied by boreal forests that provide food ഀ and shelter for ducks, geese, numerous species of migratory birds and other ഀ woodland creatures. This area, possessing the world's greatest concentration ഀ of lakes and rivers, supported the fur trade on which Canada was built. Following ഀ Cartier's exploration of the St. Lawrence River to the Lachine Rapids near Montreal ഀ and Champlain's discovery of Lake Huron by way of the Ottawa River, French and ഀ Scottish voyageurs extended the main fur trade artery along the periphery of ഀ the Shield to Lake Athabasca. Fingers of lesser routes spread to Hudson Bay ഀ and penetrated the great plains to the foothills of the Rocky Mountains. Today, ഀ the region supports mining, logging and hydroelectric interests but the population ഀ remains low.
ഀ         Boreal forests gradually give way to the Arctic ഀ tundra by means of a subarctic transitional zone that marks the treeline where ഀ conifers intermingle with the tundra. Shallow soils and permafrost prevent trees ഀ from developing deep roots and make them vulnerable to being blown over by strong ഀ winds. Consequently, they grow in sheltered stands and trees are stunted due ഀ to the extreme cold. This region of open forest patterns and stunted tree growth ഀ has been called 'the land of the little sticks.' Here, extensive pastures of ഀ bushy Cladonia lichen grow among the thinning forests. It is the main food source ഀ for caribou, moose and musk oxen during the winter months. These animals, in ഀ turn, provide food, clothing and shelter to woodland peoples.

  ഀ      The vast tundra (see ഀ picture C.02) region ഀ of northern Canada extends beyond the Shield to the Yukon in the west and encompasses ഀ the Arctic archipelago. Including portions of Greenland and Alaska, it is the ഀ traditional homeland of the Inuit people who have adapted to one of the most ഀ adverse conditions on earth. Unable to control the Arctic environment at large, ഀ the sophisticated design and manufacture of their clothing created individual ഀ micro climates that allowed them to survive in extremely cold weather. It is ഀ no fluke that Robert Peary and Ronald Amundsen, attributed with conquering the ഀ North and South Poles respectively, both utilized Inuit technology in their ഀ endeavors. In spite of copying the design of the parka (Aleut) or anorak (Inuit ഀ 'anoraq') and advances in synthetic fibers, the modern world has been unable ഀ to duplicate the light weight, insulation and wicking qualities of their garments ഀ that were made from a variety of skins, furs and feathers. This unique culture ഀ was highlighted on April 1, 1999 with the establishment of their new homeland, ഀ the Territory of Nunavut, which was formerly the eastern part of the Northwest ഀ Territories.
ഀ        The Canadian portion of the great plains of ഀ North America is located between the Western Shield and the western mountains. ഀ It is an expansive area that gradually rises from the low lying lakes at the ഀ edge of the Shield to the foothills of the Richardson, Mackenzie and Rocky Mountain ഀ ranges. The southern part is a triangular section of fertile prairie land that ഀ is Canada's major wheat growing belt. Although it is now considered the agrarian ഀ heartland of Canada, the earliest settlements were the forts and towns associated ഀ with the fur trade.
ഀ When Champlain established a fur trading post in 1608 at the site of present ഀ day Quebec City, his primary objective was to find a river route to the Pacific. ഀ However, this goal was dependent on the success of the fur trading monopoly ഀ that had been granted to his employer, the Sieur de Monts. In 1610, with the ഀ hope of gaining greater knowledge about the interior and enhancing the monopoly's ഀ trading arrangements, Champlain convinced the Ottawa Algonquins to take some ഀ French boys to live with them. It was from this group of young men that emerged ഀ the coureurs de bois, men who embraced the freedom and adventure of life in ഀ the wilderness.

(picture ഀ C.02)

     ഀ   The ഀ overhunting and subsequent decline of beavers in the northeast resulted in territorial ഀ skirmishes for hunting grounds and control of the waterways that brought furs ഀ from the west. These conflicts escalated into the Beaver Wars (1630 -1700) among ഀ various tribes and in 1649, the Huron, who were the main suppliers to the French, ഀ were defeated by the Iroquois. The subsequent collapse of the French fur trade ഀ induced the authorities to liberalize the laws in 1653 to permit the bartering ഀ of trade goods for furs by others besides the established chartered monopolies. ഀ Seizing the opportunity, coureurs de bois, traders and trappers who already ഀ lived among native peoples, extended their activities westward where inland ഀ tribes were anxious to acquire European goods. At the same time, the prospect ഀ of wealth and adventure lured so many French youth to their ranks that only ഀ a year later in 1654, the Governor of New France forbade trading without written ഀ consent to leave the colony.
ഀ      ഀ   Among these traders/adventurers were Pierre Esprit Radisson and his brother-in-law, ഀ Medard Chouart, Sieur des Groseilliers, who were described by the Canadian writer, ഀ Grace Lee Nute, as the original 'Caesars of the Wilderness.' During the 1650's, ഀ they explored the region around Lakes Michigan and Superior and ventured north ഀ from Lake Superior to James Bay. Others followed and a hundred years later, ഀ the French had explored as far as the Rocky Mountains to the west and the Gulf ഀ of Mexico to the south by way of the Mississippi River Valley.
ഀ      ഀ   All of New France was ceded to the English in 1763 but the fur trade continued ഀ under the auspices of the independent traders in Montreal. Their hired paddlers ഀ became known as 'voyageurs,' a term sometimes used synonymously with 'coureurs ഀ de bois.' Stories of the Canadian Voyageurs are legendary. They were men of ഀ great strength, endurance, independence and adventure who were mainly recruited ഀ from the large French families and Scottish immigrants. As a group, they epitomized ഀ the indomitable spirit on which Canada was founded and they are often remembered ഀ for their songs that echoed in the wilderness and established a rhythm for their ഀ grueling work.
ഀ      ഀ   In 1775, Simon McTavish, a Scottish immigrant, moved from Albany, NY to Montreal ഀ with the idea of a joint venture to challenge the Hudson Bay Company's fur monopoly. ഀ Over a hundred years earlier, the Hudson Bay Company was established when the ഀ English acted upon Radisson and Groseilliers' recommendation to set up a trading ഀ post on James Bay in 1670. McTavish's North West partnership was launched in ഀ 1790. Whereas the Hudson Bay Company waited for native people to travel to their ഀ trading posts, the Nor'Westers actively sought out new sources of fur. Although ഀ McTavish and his partners generated enormous profits, the growing overhead of ഀ continual expansion drained their working capital and by 1821, they were forced ഀ to merge with the Hudson Bay Company. In only 33 years, the Nor'Westers had ഀ explored and mapped much of western Canada. It was Sir Alexander Mackenzie, ഀ a North West partner, who crossed the northern portion of the continent 13 years ഀ before Lewis and Clark's epic journey, to reach the Pacific. He had discovered ഀ the long sought after North West Passage but was disappointed to find that the ഀ waterways were impractical for transporting freight across the mountains.

(picture ഀ C.03)

ഀ ഀ

  ഀ      The mountains of western Canada(see ഀ picture C.03) are ഀ known as the Western Cordillera. They form a continuous backbone that dominates ഀ British Columbia and the Yukon Territory with portions extending into the Northwest ഀ Territory and Alberta. Topographically, the Cordillera consists of the eastern ഀ mountains that rise from the great plains, the western, coastal mountains and ഀ the highland plateaus between them.
ഀ The Rocky Mountains are the highest of the Cordillera's eastern ranges. Comprised ഀ of a myriad of sub-ranges, they are easily accessed and boast some of the most ഀ dramatic landscapes in Canada with snow capped peaks, massive glaciers, lush, ഀ alpine meadows, roaring waterfalls and crystal-clear glacial lakes.
ഀ To the west, the St. Elias Mountains run from Alaska through the Yukon Territory ഀ to NW British Columbia and are the highest coastal mountains in the world. Canada's ഀ highest peak, Mt. Logan, is found here.
ഀ The Coast Mountains rise where the St. Elias Mountains end, in an unbroken wall ഀ with very few passes. It was journeying through the southern reach of the Canadian ഀ portion of these mountains to explore the Fraser River in 1808 that Simon Fraser, ഀ another North West fur trader, despaired, 'We had to pass where no human being ഀ should venture.…' He and his men faced tortuous challenges as they portaged ഀ over moss covered outcrops and tenuous footholds along steep precipices where ഀ the river was too violent for their flimsy canoes.

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(picture ഀ C.1.01)

  ഀ      Canada is the second largest country ഀ in the world (see ഀ picture C.1.01). ഀ It has a total area of 9970610 square kilometers and is bordered by three oceans: ഀ the Pacific to the west, the Arctic to the north and the Atlantic to the east. ഀ Across the country, Canadians experience many different landscapes from rolling ഀ plains and mountains to the cold tundra of the north.
ഀ Canada can be divided into 5 major regions: the Pacific Region, the Prairie ഀ Provinces, Central Canada, the Atlantic Provinces and the North.


       The ഀ Pacific Region includes (see ഀ picture C.1.02) ഀ Canada's westernmost province, British Columbia. The region is known for its ഀ mild coastal climate, its forests, and its spectacular mountains, including ഀ the famous Rockies.

(picture ഀ C.1.02)

     ഀ   The Rocky ഀ Mountains are the youngest and highest mountains in Canada. British Columbia ഀ is the landform region called the Western Cordillera. Between the mountain ranges ഀ are areas of high plateaus and deep trenches. Since the landscape is very rugged, ഀ most people live in the south and near the coast. Vancouver and Victoria are ഀ the largest cities in Columbia.


       Alberta, ഀ Saskatchewan, and Manitoba are Canada's Prairie Provinces(see ഀ picture C.1.03).

(picture ഀ C.1.03)


     ഀ   They are known for their ഀ rolling plains and extreme climate with long, cold winters and hot, dry summers. ഀ Much of the area is covered with farms producing large quantities of wheat and ഀ other grains. The region is also rich in oil and natural gas.
ഀ The Pacific Provinces are not only characterized by their rolling plains, however. ഀ Northern Saskatchewan and Manitoba are covered by the great Canadian Shield ഀ - a rocky landscape with lakes, rivers and forests that stretches over almost ഀ half of Canada. Southwestern Alberta has the Rocky Mountains and some of the ഀ spectacular scenery in the country.


(picture ഀ C.1.04)

  ഀ      This region (see ഀ picture C.1.04), ഀ which includes Ontario and Quebec, is not really the geographic centre of Canada. ഀ The region gets its name because, historically, it has been the centre of political ഀ and economic power in the country. Canada's capital city is Ottawa, Ontario. ഀ Central Canada is also the most heavily populated and industrialized area of ഀ Canada, particularly in the south around the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence River.
ഀ        The Great Lakes are the largest body of fresh ഀ water in the world. In order of size, they include Lake Superior, Lake Michigan, ഀ Lake Huron, Lake Erie, and Lake Ontario
(see ഀ picture C.1.05). ഀ Some of the first settlements in Canada were built along the St. Lawrence River ഀ and around the Great Lakes. Today, these waterways are still an important transportation ഀ route from the Atlantic Ocean to Canada's interior.
ഀ        Though heavily populated, the Great Lakes - ഀ St. Lawrence Lowlands in the south is only a small geographic region in Central ഀ Canada. The largest part by far of Central Canada is covered by the Rocky Canadian ഀ Shield. In the far north we find the Hudson Bay Lowlands, which are cold, flat ഀ and swampy, with very few towns and cities. This area is home mainly to Inuit ഀ and other indigenous peoples who have lived there for centuries.

(picture ഀ C.1.05)


     ഀ   The easternmost region ഀ of the country includes the Maritime Provinces of New Brunswick, Prince Edward ഀ Island, and Nova Scotia, as well as New Found land and Labrador. Fishing, shipping, ഀ and farming are important activities for the people of this area. The region ഀ has many small coastal communities, although there are also major industrial ഀ centres such as Halifax and Sydney in Nova Scotia.
ഀ      ഀ    There are mountains in this region, the Appalachian Mountains, but they are ഀ not all like the grand, rugged mountain ns of the Pacific region. The Appalachians ഀ are old, rounded mountains. Valleys n the region, such as the Annapolis Valley ഀ in Nova Scotia, are important farming areas producing fruit, vegetables and ഀ dairy products.


(see ഀ picture C.1.06)

  ഀ      Canada's North (picture ഀ C.1.06) includes ഀ the Yukon Territory and the Northwest Territories, along with all of Canada's ഀ Arctic islands. To most Canadians this region is quite remote since 75% of Canada's ഀ population lives in the south within 160 km of the Canada-United States border. ഀ However, the North is home to over 85000 people, many of them indigenous peoples, ഀ and to a great variety of wildlife including caribou and polar bears.
ഀ        The North
(see ഀ picture C.1.07) covers ഀ a large area and has a varied landscape which includes mountains of the Western ഀ Cordillera, the Innuitian Mountains, the Arctic Lowlands, and parts of the Interior ഀ Plains and Canadian Shield. This varied landscape has one feature in common, ഀ however, extremely long, cold winters and a lot of snow. It is so cold that ഀ the earth is frozen for most of the year and never thaws more than half a meter ഀ from the surface. This permanently frozen layer of earth is called permafrost ഀ and has made construction in the North a real challenge for architects and builders.

(picture ഀ C.1.07)

  ഀ      Much of the North is treeless ഀ tundra, but in the spring and summer the tundra plays host to a variety of beautiful ഀ wildflowers and shrubs. In the summer months, there is no darkness: the sun ഀ never sets. The summer season may be short, but it is all the more appreciated ഀ for its contrast with the long darkness of the winter. (see ഀ picture C.1.08)

(picture ഀ C.1.08)


1. In land area, is Canada ഀ the largest second country, or forth largest country in the world?
ഀ 2. What is the name of Canada's newest and highest mountain range?
ഀ 3. What rocky landform region covers almost half of Canada?
ഀ 4. How many lakes are there in the largest body of fresh water in the world? ഀ What is this group of lakes called?
ഀ 5. In which part of Canada do you find tundra?


(picture ഀ C.1.09)

  ഀ      Many people think of the weather in Canada as filled ഀ with Arctic blizzards and freezing cold. This is true for winters in remote ഀ areas of the northern territories, but the weather across the rest of Canada ഀ is actually far more varied and comfortable.
ഀ        In the Atlantic region of eastern Canada, the ഀ meeting of ocean
(see ഀ picture C.1.09) and ഀ continent creates weather that can vary a great deal, even within the same season. ഀ In winter, there can be heavy snowfall, followed by rapid melting a short while ഀ later. This cycle repeats itself several times from December to March. The moist ഀ air of the ocean keeps temperatures moderate and comfortable on most days, with ഀ average highs of about23°C in summer and -2°C in winter.
ഀ         The province of Quebec is a study in weather ഀ contrasts. The region experiences four distinct seasons each year, most notably ഀ extreme summers and winters. Hot and humid is the best way to describe the summer ഀ months, and winters are notoriously long, cold and snowy.
ഀ         Despite the great amount of snow and cold, ഀ Quebec enjoys more winter sunshine than London or Paris. The average high temperature ഀ in Quebec ranges from 25°C in summer to -9°C in winter.
ഀ         Ontario has unique weather and climate patterns, ഀ thanks to the Great Lakes. These immense bodies of water have a moderating effect ഀ in both summer and winter, leading to smaller average temperature variations ഀ throughout the year. There are differences in weather between southern and northern ഀ locations along the Great Lakes, but in general, the daily high temperature ഀ in the province ranges from 27°C in summer to -9°C in winter.
ഀ        Canada's Prairie Provinces - Alberta, Saskatchewan ഀ and Manitoba - experience typical mid-continental weather patterns. Summers ഀ are hot, winters are cold, and rain is sparse. One of the most interesting aspects ഀ of this area is the "Chinook" wind. A Chinook is warm, dry wind that ഀ drops out of the Rockies in winter, causing temperatures to rise as much as ഀ 15°C in one day. Average high temperatures across the Prairie Provinces range ഀ from 26°C in summer to -17°C in winter.
ഀ        British Columbia enjoys both moderate coastal ഀ weather and more severe mountain weather in the Rockies.
ഀ         The largest cities are located along the Pacific ഀ coast where summers and winters are mild and snowfall is generally rare. The ഀ mountainous areas experience more snow and more extreme winter temperatures, ഀ but the summers are generally warm and pleasant.


ഀ      ഀ   There are no such things as "snow worms" - worm-like life forms that ഀ live in the northern environment of ice and snow. From time to time scientists ഀ have encountered some minute forms of life - larvae, etc. - embedded in fields ഀ of ice and snow, but such forms of life are non-native to ice and snow and were ഀ introduced accidentally to the domain. They thrive there for but a short period ഀ of time. Yet rumours persist that "snow worms" thrive in northern ഀ fields of ice and snow. Charles Fort, the American collector of oddities, discussed ഀ this notion in The Book of the Damned (1919). "I accept that there are ഀ 'snow worms' upon this earth - whatever their origin may be," he stated. ഀ "There is a description of yellow worms and black worms that have been ഀ found together on glaciers in Alaska. Almost positively there were no other ഀ forms of insect-life upon these glaciers, and there was no vegetation to support ഀ insect-life, except microscopic organisms. Nevertheless the description of this ഀ probably polymorphic species fits a description of larvae said to have fallen ഀ in Switzerland, and less definitely fits another description."

  ഀ      A satellite composite image of Canada. Boreal forests ഀ prevail on the rocky Canadian Shield. Ice and tundra are prominent in the Arctic. ഀ Glaciers are visible in the Canadian Rockies and Coast Mountains. Flat and fertile ഀ Prairies facilitate agriculture.
ഀ        The Great Lakes feed the St. Lawrence River ഀ (in the southeast) where lowlands host much of Canada's population. Canada occupies ഀ a major northern portion of North America, sharing land borders with the contiguous ഀ United States to the south and with the US state of Alaska to the northwest, ഀ stretching from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the Pacific Ocean in the west; ഀ to the north lies the Arctic Ocean. By total area (including its waters), Canada ഀ is the second largest country in the world, after Russia, and largest on the ഀ continent. By land area it ranks fourth, after Russia, China, and the United ഀ States. Since 1925, Canada has claimed the portion of the Arctic between 60°W ഀ and141°W longitude, but this claim is not universally recognized. The northernmost ഀ settlement in Canada and in the world is Canadian Forces Station (CFS) Alert ഀ on the northern tip of Ellesmere Island-latitude 82.5°N-just 817 kilometres ഀ (450 nautical miles) from the North Pole.
ഀ Canada has the longest coastline in the world: 243,000 kilometres. The population ഀ density, 3.5 inhabitants per square kilometre (9.1 /sq mi ), is among the lowest ഀ in the world. The most densely populated part of the country is the Quebec City- ഀ Windsor Corridor along the Great Lakes and Saint Lawrence River in the southeast. ഀ To the north of this region is the broad Canadian Shield, an area of rock scoured ഀ clean by the last ice age, thinly soiled, rich in minerals, and dotted with ഀ lakes and rivers.
ഀ        Canada by far has more lakes than any other ഀ country and has a large amount of the world's freshwater.
ഀ A Maritime scene at Peggys Cove
(see ഀ picture C.1.10), ഀ Nova Scotia, which has long been sustained by the Atlantic fishery.

(picture ഀ C.1.10)

     ഀ   In eastern ഀ Canada, most people live in large urban centres on the flat Saint Lawrence Lowlands. ഀ The Saint Lawrence River widens into the world's largest estuary before flowing ഀ into the Gulf of Saint Lawrence. The Gulf is bounded by Newfoundland to the ഀ north and the Maritime provinces to the south. The Maritimes protrude eastward ഀ along the Appalachian Mountain range from northern New England and the Gaspй ഀ Peninsula of Quebec. New Brunswick and Nova Scotia are divided by the Bay of ഀ Fundy, which experiences the world's largest tidal variations. Ontario and Hudson ഀ Bay dominate central Canada. West of Ontario, the broad, flat Canadian Prairies ഀ spread toward the Rocky Mountains, which separate them from British Columbia.
ഀ      ഀ   In northwestern Canada, the Mackenzie River flows from the Great Slave Lake ഀ to
ഀ the Arctic Ocean. A tributary of a tributary of the Mackenzie is the South Nahanni ഀ River, which is home to Virginia Falls, a waterfall about twice as high as Niagara ഀ Falls. Northern Canadian vegetation tapers from coniferous forests to tundra ഀ and finally to Arctic barrens in the far north. The northern Canadian mainland ഀ is ringed with a vast archipelago containing some of the world's largest islands.
ഀ      ഀ   Average winter and summer high temperatures across Canada vary depending on ഀ the location. Winters can be harsh in many regions of the country, particularly ഀ in the interior and Prairie Provinces which experience a continental climate, ഀ where daily average temperatures are near?15 °C (5 °F) but can drop below ?40 ഀ °C (?40 °F) with severe wind chills. In non-coastal regions, snow can cover ഀ the ground almost six months of the year (more in the north). Coastal British ഀ Columbia is an exception and enjoys a temperate climate with a mild and rainy ഀ winter. On the east and west coast average high temperatures are generally in ഀ the low 20s°C (70s °F), while between the coasts the average summer high temperature ഀ ranges from 25 to30 °C (75 to85 °F) with occasional extreme heat in some interior ഀ locations exceeding 40 °C (104 °F).


  ഀ      There are some two million lakes in Canada, covering ഀ about 7.6 percent of the Canadian landmass. The main lakes, in order of the ഀ surface area located in Canada (many large lakes are traversed by the Canada-U.S. ഀ border), are Huron, Great Bear, Superior, Great Slave, ഀ Winnipeg, Erie and Ontario (see ഀ picture C.1.11). ഀ The largest lake situated entirely in Canada is Great Bear Lake (31 328 km2) ഀ in the Northwest Territories. The deepest lake is Great Slave Lake, N.W.T., ഀ 614 metres.
ഀ The Great Lakes - Superior, Michigan, Huron, Erie and Ontario - are the largest ഀ group of freshwater lakes in the world. They have a total surface area of 245 ഀ 000 square kilometres, of which about one third is in Canada; only Lake Michigan ഀ is entirely within the USA.
ഀ        Ontario is the only province, state, or territory ഀ that borders all 4 Great Lakes that touch Canada.
ഀ The largest lake in the world to drain naturally in two directions is Wollaston ഀ Lake in Saskatchewan, 2681 square kilometres. It flows north into the Mackenzie ഀ River basin and east into Hudson Bay.
ഀ The world's largest lake inside a lake, Manitou Lake, is located on the world's ഀ largest lake island, Manitoulin Island, which is located on Lake Huron. Manitoulin ഀ Island covers 2 765 square kilometres. The largest island in Canada is Baffin ഀ Island, Nunavut, 507 451 square kilometres.

(picture ഀ C.1.11)


ഀ      ഀ    Rivers in Canada flow into five major ocean drainage basins: the Pacific, Arctic ഀ and Atlantic oceans, Hudson Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. The drainage basin areas ഀ are separated by a drainage divide or height of land. The river system with ഀ the largest drainage area is the Mackenzie River.
ഀ      ഀ   The St. Lawrence (3 058 kilometres long) is Canada's most important river, providing ഀ a seaway for ships from the Great Lakes to the Atlantic Ocean. The longest Canadian ഀ river is the Mackenzie, which flows 4 241 kilometres through the Northwest Territories. ഀ Other large watercourses include the Yukon and the Columbia (parts of which ഀ flow through U.S. territory), the Nelson, the Churchill, and the Fraser - along ഀ with major tributaries such as the Saskatchewan, the Peace, the Ottawa, the ഀ Athabasca and the Liard.

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Religion ഀ in Canada

       In the Canada ഀ 2001 Census, 72% of the Canadian population list Roman Catholicism or Protestantism ഀ as their religion. The Roman Catholic Church in Canada is by far the country's ഀ largest single denomination. Those who listed no religion account for 16% of ഀ total respondents. In British Columbia, however, 35% of respondents reported ഀ no religion - more than any single denomination and more than all Protestants ഀ combined. For further information on historically significant religions in Canada, ഀ please see Canadian census results on religion.

Top ഀ Religious Denominations in Canada

ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ
% ഀ change
ഀ (in numbers)

- ഀ Roman Catholic
- ഀ Total Protestant
- ഀ United Church of Canada
- ഀ Anglican Church of Canada
- ഀ Christian, not included elsewhere?
- ഀ Baptist
- ഀ Lutheran
- ഀ Protestant, not included elsewhere?
- ഀ Presbyterian
- ഀ Christian Orthodox
- ഀ Coptic Orthodox
- ഀ Romanian Orthodox
No ഀ religion
- ഀ Muslim
- ഀ Jewish
- ഀ Buddhist
- ഀ Hindu
- ഀ Sikh
1 Includes ഀ persons who report "Christian", and those who report "Apostolic", ഀ "Born-again Christian" and "Evangelical".
ഀ 2 Includes persons who report only "Protestant".
ഀ * For comparability purposes, 1991 data are presented according to 2001 ഀ boundaries.

    Non-Christian ഀ religions in Canada

    ഀ        Non-Christian religions in Canada are overwhelmingly ഀ concentrated in metropolitan cites such as Montreal, Toronto and Vancouver, ഀ and to a much smaller extent in mid-sized cities such as Ottawa, Quebec, Calgary, ഀ Edmonton, Winnipeg and Halifax. A possible exception is Judaism, which has ഀ long been a notable minority even in smaller centres. Much of the increase ഀ in non-Christian religions is attributed to changing immigration trends in ഀ the last fifty years. Increased immigration from Asia, the Middle East and ഀ Africa has created ever-growing Muslim, Buddhist, Sikh, and Hindu communities. ഀ Canada is also home to smaller communities of the Bah?'? Faith, Unitarian ഀ Universalists, Pagans, and suscribers to Native American Spirituality.

    Islam in Canada

    ഀ        The Muslim community in Canada is almost as ഀ old as the nation itself. Four years after Canada's founding in 1867, the ഀ 1871 Canadian Census found 13 Muslims among the population. The first Canadian ഀ mosque was constructed in Edmonton in 1938, when there were approximately ഀ 700 Muslims in the country. This building is now part of the museum at Fort ഀ Edmonton Park. The years after World War II saw a small increase in the Muslim ഀ population. However, Muslims were still a distinct minority. It was only with ഀ the removal of European immigration preferences in the late 1960s that Muslims ഀ began to arrive in significant numbers.
    ഀ        According to 2001 census, there were 579,640 ഀ Muslims in Canada, just under 2% of the population. In 2006, Muslim population ഀ is estimated to be 783,700 or about 2.5%.

    Sikhism in Canada

    ഀ        Sikhs have been in Canada since 1897. One ഀ of the first Sikh soldiers arrived in Canada in 1897 following Queen Victoria's ഀ Diamond Jubilee. Sikhs were one of the few Asian immigrant communities who ഀ were loyal members of the British Empire. The irony was that greater entry ഀ restrictions were placed on perspective Sikh immigrants as compared to the ഀ Japanese and Chinese. While Canadian politicians, missionaries, unions and ഀ the press did not want Asian labour, British Columbia industrialists were ഀ short of labour and thus Sikhs were able to get an early foothold at the turn ഀ of the century in British Columbia. Of the nearly 5,000 East Indians in Canada ഀ by 1907, over 98% were Sikhs, mostly retired British army veterans. Sikh immigration ഀ to Canada was banned in 1908, and the population began to shrink.
    ഀ        According to century of struggle and success ഀ the Sikh Canadian experience "With the advent of World War II and the ഀ internment of Japanese Canadians, Sikhs were able to prosper. Before going ഀ to the internment camps Japanese preferred to sell their homes and properties ഀ to their Sikh neighbors who they had known for so long. As the war economy ഀ picked up speed and moved into high gear, Sikhs were given positions of greater ഀ responsibility on the factory floors across the country as well as sharpening ഀ their skills as successful businessmen. Just as the war helped to emancipate ഀ North American women, showing that they were capable of doing a man's job, ഀ Sikhs were showing that they were just as talented as their European counterparts. ഀ One of the last major roadblocks remained the right to vote. The year was ഀ 1947, fifty years since the first Sikh immigrants had arrived, yet they were ഀ still denied this fundamental right. A right that was long overdue and Sikhs ഀ rallied to the cause, holding town hall meetings and lobbying local politicians ഀ and the government in Ottawa to try change the law."
    ഀ         After the 1960s Canada's immigration laws ഀ were liberalized and racial quotas were removed, allowing far more Sikhs to ഀ immigrate to Canada. The Sikh population has rapidly increased in the decades ഀ since. Major Sikh communities exist in most of the major cities of British ഀ Columbia and Ontario. Sikhs have become an integral part of Canada's economy ഀ and culture.

    Canadians with no religious affiliation

    ഀ         Non-religious Canadians are most common on ഀ the West Coast, particularly in Greater Vancouver.[citation needed] Non-religious ഀ Canadians include atheists, agnostics, humanists as well as other nontheists. ഀ In 1991, they made up 12.3 percent which increased to 16.2 percent in 2001 ഀ of the population according to the 2001 census. Some non-religious Canadians ഀ have formed some associations, such as the Humanist Association of Canada ഀ or the Toronto Secular Alliance. In 1991, some non-religious Canadians signed ഀ a petition, tabled in Parliament by Svend Robinson, to remove "God" ഀ from the preamble to the Canadian Constitution, after which he was relegated ഀ to the backbenches by his party leader. Shortly afterwards, the same group ഀ petitioned to remove "God" from the Canadian national anthem, "O ഀ Canada", but to no avail. According to www.religioustolerance.org, among ഀ the estimated 4,900,095 Canadians of no religion, an estimated 18,605 would ഀ specify atheist, 17,815 would specify agnostic, and 1,245 humanist.

    Christianity in Canada

    ഀ        The majority of Canadian Christians attend ഀ church infrequently. Cross-national surveys of religiosity rates such as the ഀ Pew Global Attitudes Project indicate that, on average, Canadian Christians ഀ are less observant than those of the United States but are still more overtly ഀ religious than their counterparts in Britain or in western Europe. In 2002, ഀ 30% of Canadians reported to Pew researchers that religion was "very ഀ important" to them. This figure was similar to that in the United Kingdom ഀ (33%) and Italy (27%). In the United States, the equivalent figure was 59%, ഀ in France, a mere 11%. Regional differences within Canada exist, however, ഀ with British Columbia and Quebec reporting especially low metrics of traditional ഀ religious observance, as well as a significant urban-rural divide. The rates ഀ for weekly church attendance are contested, with estimates running as low ഀ as 11% as per the latest Ipsos-Reid poll and as high as 25% as per Christianity ഀ Today magazine. This American magazine reported that three polls conducted ഀ by Focus on the Family, Time Canada and the Vanier Institute of the Family ഀ showed church attendance increasing for the first time in a generation, with ഀ weekly attendance at 25 per cent. This number is similar to the statistics ഀ reported by premier Canadian sociologist of religion Prof. Reginald Bibby ഀ of the University of Lethbridge, who has been studying Canadian religious ഀ patterns since 1975. Although lower than in the US, which has reported weekly ഀ church attendance at about 40% since the Second World War, weekly church attendance ഀ rates are higher than those in Northern Europe (for example, Austria 9%, Germany ഀ 6%, France 8%, Netherlands 6 % and UK 10%).
    ഀ         As well as the large churches-Roman Catholic, ഀ United, and Anglican, which together count more than half of the Canadian ഀ population as nominal adherents-Canada also has many smaller Christian groups, ഀ including Orthodox Christianity. The Egyptian population in Ontario and Quebec ഀ (Greater Toronto in particular) has seen a large influx of the Coptic Orthodox ഀ population in just a few decades. The relatively large Ukrainian population ഀ of Manitoba and Saskatchewan has produced many followers of the Ukrainian ഀ Catholic and Ukrainian Orthodox Churches, while southern Manitoba has been ഀ settled largely by Mennonites. The concentration of these smaller groups often ഀ varies greatly across the country. Baptists are especially numerous in the ഀ Maritimes. The Maritimes and prairie provinces have significant numbers of ഀ Lutherans. Southwest Ontario has seen large numbers of German and Russian ഀ immigrants, including many Mennonites and Hutterites, as well as a significant ഀ contingent of Dutch Reformed. Alberta has seen considerable immigration from ഀ the American plains, creating a significant Mormon minority in that province. ഀ And according to the Jehovah witness year report there are 111 963 active ഀ members(members who actively preach)in Canada.

    Age and religion

    ഀ        According to the 2001 census, the major religions ഀ in Canada have the following median age. Canada has a median age of 37.3.

ഀ Presbyterian - 46.0;

ഀ United Church - 44.1;
ഀ Anglican - 43.8;
ഀ Lutheran - 43.3;
ഀ Jewish - 41.5;
ഀ Greek Orthodox - 40.7;
ഀ Baptist - 39.3;
ഀ Buddhist - 38.0;
ഀ Roman Catholic - 37.8;
ഀ Pentecostal - 33.5;
ഀ Hindu - 31.9;
ഀ No religion - 31.1;
ഀ Sikh - 29.7;
ഀ Muslim - 28.1.


    Government and religion

    ഀ        Canada today has no official church, and the ഀ government is officially committed to religious pluralism. In some fields ഀ Christian influence remains.
    ഀ        Christmas and Easter are nationwide holidays, ഀ and while Jews, Muslims, and other groups are allowed to take their holy days ഀ off work they do not share the same official recognition. The French version ഀ of "O Canada", the official national anthem, contains a Christian ഀ reference to "carrying the cross". In some parts of the country ഀ Sunday shopping is still banned, but this is steadily becoming less common. ഀ There was an ongoing battle in the late 20th century to have religious garb ഀ accepted throughout Canadian society, mostly focused on Sikh turbans. Eventually ഀ the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the Royal Canadian Legion, and other groups ഀ accepted members wearing turbans.
    ഀ        Canada is a Commonwealth realm in which the ഀ head of state is shared with 15 other countries, including the United Kingdom. ഀ The UK's succession laws forbid Roman Catholics and their spouses from occupying ഀ the throne, and the reigning monarch is also ex officio Supreme Governor of ഀ the Church of England, but Canada is not bound by these laws. Within Canada, ഀ the Queen's title include the phrases "By the Grace of God" and ഀ "Defender of the Faith."
    ഀ         While the Canadian government's official ഀ ties to Christianity are few, it more overtly recognizes the existence of ഀ God. Both the preamble to the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms and ഀ the national anthem in both languages refer to God.
    ഀ        Some religious schools are government-funded. ഀ See Section Twenty-nine of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.


    ഀ        Before the arrival of Europeans, the First Nations followed a wide array of ഀ mostly animistic religions. See also Native American mythology. The first ഀ Europeans to settle in great numbers in Canada were French Catholics, including ഀ a large number of Jesuits dedicated to converting the natives; an effort that ഀ had only limited success.
    ഀ        The first large Protestant communities were formed in the Maritimes after ഀ they were conquered by the British. Unable to convince enough British immigrants ഀ to go to the region, the government decided to import continental Protestants ഀ from Germany and Switzerland to populate the region and counter balance the ഀ Catholic Acadians. This group was known as the Foreign Protestants. This effort ഀ proved successful and today the South Shore region of Nova Scotia is still ഀ largely Lutheran.
    ഀ         This pattern remained the same after the British conquest of all of New France ഀ in 1759. While originally plans to try to convert the Catholic majority were ഀ in place, these were abandoned in the face of the American Revolution. The ഀ Quebec Act of 1774 acknowledged the rights of the Catholic Church throughout ഀ Lower Canada in order to keep the French-Canadians loyal to Britain.
    ഀ         The American Revolution brought about a large influx of Protestants to Canada. ഀ United Empire Loyalists, fleeing the rebellious United States, moved in large ഀ numbers to Upper Canada and the Maritimes. They comprised a mix of Christian ഀ groups with a large number of Anglicans, but also many Presbyterians and Methodists.
    ഀ In the early nineteenth century in the Maritimes and Upper Canada, the Anglican ഀ Church held the same official position it did in Great Britain. This caused ഀ tension within English Canada, as much of the populace was not Anglican. Increasing ഀ immigration from Scotland created a very large Presbyterian community and ഀ they and other groups demanded equal rights. This was an important cause of ഀ the 1837 Rebellion in Upper Canada. With the arrival of responsible government, ഀ the Anglican monopoly was ended.
    ഀ        In Lower Canada, the Catholic Church was officially pre-eminent and had a ഀ central role in the colony's culture and politics. Unlike English Canada, ഀ French-Canadian nationalism became very closely associated with Catholicism. ഀ During this period, the Catholic Church in the region became one of the most ഀ reactionary in the world. Known as Ultramontane Catholicism, the church adopted ഀ positions condemning all manifestations of liberalism, to the extent that ഀ even the very conservative popes of the period had to chide it for extremism.
    ഀ        In politics, those aligned with the Catholic clergy in Quebec were known as ഀ les bleus (the blues). They formed a curious alliance with the staunchly monarchist ഀ and pro-British Anglicans of English Canada (often members of the Orange Order) ഀ to form the basis of the Canadian Conservative Party. The Reform Party, which ഀ later became the Liberal Party, was largely composed of the anti-clerical ഀ French-Canadians, known as les rouges (the reds) and the non-Anglican Protestant ഀ groups. In those times, right before elections, parish priests would give ഀ sermons to their flock where they said things like Le ciel est bleu et l'enfer ഀ est rouge. This translates as "Heaven/the sky is blue and hell is red".
    ഀ         By the late nineteenth century, Protestant pluralism had taken hold in English ഀ Canada. While much of the elite were still Anglican, other groups had become ഀ very prominent as well. Toronto had become home to the world's single largest ഀ Methodist community and it became known as the "Methodist Rome". ഀ The schools and universities created at this time reflected this pluralism ഀ with major centres of learning being established for each faith. One, King's ഀ College, later the University of Toronto, was set up a non-denominational ഀ school.
    ഀ        The late nineteenth century also saw the beginning of a large shift in Canadian ഀ immigration patterns. Large numbers of Irish and Southern European immigrants ഀ were creating new Catholic communities in English Canada. The population of ഀ the west brought significant Eastern Orthodox immigrants from Eastern Europe ഀ and Mormon and Pentecostal immigrants from the United States.
    ഀ        Domination of Canadian society by Protestant and Catholic elements continued ഀ until well into the 20th century, however. Up until the 1960s, most parts ഀ of Canada still had extensive Lord's Day laws that limited what one could ഀ do on a Sunday. The English-Canadian elite were still dominated by Protestants, ഀ and Jews and Catholics were often excluded. A slow process of liberalization ഀ began after the Second World War in English-Canada. Overtly Christian laws ഀ were expunged, including those against homosexuality. Policies favouring Christian ഀ immigration were also abolished.
    ഀ The most overwhelming change occurred in Quebec. In 1950, the province was ഀ one of the most dedicatedly Catholic areas in the world. Church attendance ഀ rates were extremely high, books banned by the Papal Index were difficult ഀ to find, and the school system was largely controlled by the church. In the ഀ Quiet Revolution of the 1960s, this was spectacularly transformed. While the ഀ majority of Qu?b?cois are still professed Catholics, rates of church attendance ഀ are today extremely low, in fact, they are the lowest of any region in North ഀ America today. Common law relationships, abortion, and support for same-sex ഀ marriage are more common in Quebec than in the rest of Canada.
    ഀ        English Canada had seen a similar transition, although less extreme. The United ഀ Church of Canada, the country's largest Protestant denomination, is one of ഀ the most liberal major Protestant churches in the world. It is committed to ഀ gay rights including marriage and ordination, and to the ordination of women. ഀ The head of the church even once commented that the resurrection of Jesus ഀ might not be a scientific fact. However, that trend appears to have subsided, ഀ as the United Church has seen its membership decline substantially since the ഀ 1990s, and other mainline churches have seen similar declines, while overall ഀ church attendance has increased in the 2000s.The influence of the Orange Order ഀ continued, especially in Toronto, but has largely diminished since the 1960s.
    ഀ        In addition, a strong current of evangelical Protestantism exists outside ഀ of Quebec. The largest groups are found in the Atlantic Provinces and Western ഀ Canada, particularly in Alberta, southern Manitoba and the southern interior ഀ and Fraser Valley region of British Columbia. There is also a significant ഀ evangelical population in southern Ontario. In these areas, particularly outside ഀ the Greater Toronto Area, the culture is more conservative, somewhat more ഀ in line with that of the midwestern and southern United States, and same-sex ഀ marriage, abortion, and common-law relationships are less popular. This movement ഀ has grown considerably in the past few years (primarily in those areas listed ഀ above) due to strong influences on public policy and stark divides, not unlike ഀ those in the United States, although the overall proportion of evangelicals ഀ in Canada remains considerably lower and the polarization much less intense. ഀ There are very few evangelicals in Quebec and in the largest urban areas, ഀ which are generally secular, although there are several congregations above ഀ 1000 in most large cities.

[ ഀ вернуться в начало документа ]

Main ഀ cities

Canadian ഀ provinces

       Manitoba, Saskatchewan ഀ and Alberta are called the Prairie Provinces. This region of Canada is known ഀ for its fertile agricultural land and valuable energy resources.
ഀ        Land for growing some of the best grain in the world is located in the southern ഀ part of these three provinces. As one moves north, the land changes into semi-arid ഀ grassland, and finally, to treeless tundra.
ഀ        The Prairies are flat plains that stretch across the southern part of the region. ഀ This area has few trees and very fertile soil. Most of what was open grasslands ഀ is now used for farming, particularly grain crops, and for raising cattle. The ഀ Prairie region, however, is not all flat farmland. The northern and western ഀ parts of the region include gently rolling hills, valleys and rivers. In southern ഀ Alberta, the open prairies gradually rise to meet the Rocky Mountains along ഀ the border of British Columbia.
ഀ        The First Nations people, the earliest inhabitants ഀ of the Prairies, were skilled buffalo hunters. Their descendants and the Metis ഀ people became important suppliers, traders, guides and interpreters for the ഀ fur trade. French-speaking people the Prairie Provinces since the early have ഀ lived in days of the fur trade. Descendants of these early settlers still live ഀ in the Prairie region.
ഀ        The Prairies are rich in energy resources. About one-half of all the energy ഀ used in Canada comes from oil and natural gas. Alberta is the country's major ഀ producer of these fuels. Alberta also has an important coal mining industry. ഀ Saskatchewan is a large producer of oil, natural gas, uranium and potash. Manitoba, ഀ known as the Land of 100,000 Lakes, is the most important source of hydroelectric ഀ power in the Prairie region. The majority of people in the Prairie Provinces ഀ work in service industries. This includes business and financial services, transportation, ഀ tourism, the retail industry, and health and education.
ഀ        The Prairies have some of the most fertile farmland in the world. Prairie farmers ഀ and ranchers produce grains (such as wheat, barley or oats), meat and other ഀ food products for markets in Canada and other countries.


(picture ഀ C.4.01)

  ഀ      This province of about a million people is ethnically ഀ diverse, and plays host to a number of ethnic festivals that have become great ഀ tourist attractions. The largest of these is Folklorama, which takes place each ഀ August in Winnipeg. Visitors have the opportunity to sample food, drink, and ഀ entertainment from a large number of ethnic groups. Winnipeg, home to about ഀ three-quarters of a million people, is home to ballet, symphony, opera, and ഀ theater companies. Those who want to see a piece of Canada's natural heritage ഀ should visit the Living Prairie Museum on Ness Avenue. The wonderful beaches ഀ of Lake Winnipeg (see ഀ picture C.4.01), ഀ one of the world's largest lakes (see ഀ picture C.4.02 and picture ഀ C.4.03), ഀ are also nearby. In Manitoba, the agricultural industry benefits from heavy ഀ rainfall and farmers produce a wide variety of grain crops and livestock. Manitoba's ഀ manufacturing industries produce a variety of goods, including food, transportation ഀ equipment, metal products, electrical goods and clothing.

(picture ഀ C.4.02)

(picture ഀ C.4.03)



       Saskatchewan ഀ is the "wheat province," responsible for more than half of Canada's ഀ wheat production. While the province is mostly flat prairie(see ഀ picture C.4.04), ഀ the Cypress Hills in the southern part of the province provide a stark contrast, ഀ with sandstone buttes, dark caves, and impressive cliffs. The area served as ഀ a haven for cattle rustlers and outlaws in centuries past. Northern Saskatchewan ഀ is a country of forests and lakes, 80 million acres of wilderness. The area ഀ is a haven for those who love to hunt, fish, canoe, or hike. In the winter, ഀ the province provides plenty of opportunities for the downhill or cross-country ഀ skiing enthusiast. Saskatchewan, the leading wheat producer in Canada, is one ഀ of the most productive agricultural regions in the world. The manufacturing, ഀ mining and forestry sectors play an important role in Saskatchewan's economy.

(picture ഀ C.4.04)


ഀ ഀ


(picture ഀ C.4.05)

  ഀ      Alberta is also a land ഀ of prairie (see ഀ picture C.4.05), ഀ although the magnificent Canadian Rockies serve as the province's border on ഀ the west. The crown jewel of North American paleontology may be the Tyrell Museum ഀ of Paleontology in Drumheller. Visitors can see a wide variety of fossils and ഀ dinosaur bones. A short walk outside the museum building allows viewers to see ഀ dinosaur bones as paleontologists first found them. Alberta leads the country ഀ in beef cattle and feed grain production. Food and beverage processing is the ഀ largest manufacturing industry in Alberta.

Jasper ഀ National Park

       This ഀ 4,200-square mile park north of Banff offers its ഀ own charms (see ഀ picture C.4.06). ഀ Visitors who want mountain views but who do not want to hike to the top of a ഀ peak may enjoy the gondola ride from the town of Jasper up Whistler's Mountain. ഀ The 1920s-era Jasper Park Lodge is a favorite destination for tourists.

(picture ഀ C.4.06)


       Calgary, ഀ Alberta, is home to the Calgary Stampede (see ഀ picture C.4.07), ഀ "the Greatest Outdoor Show on Earth," which takes place during the ഀ first two weeks of July. This world-famous rodeo draws visitors from all across ഀ the globe. Calgary, the transportation center for the ranching industry in western ഀ Canada, was the site of the 1988 Winter Olympics. A unique opportunity awaits ഀ anyone thinking about making that transatlantic leap to a career in Canada. ഀ From the hometown of singer Feast and footballer Owen Hargreaves, The City of ഀ Calgary is bringing a team of representatives to the Opportunities Canada job ഀ fairs in Leeds on June 21 and 22 (booth 39), and in London on June 28 and 29 ഀ (booth 24). Calgary Mayor Dave Bronconnier will officially open the London event.

(picture ഀ C.4.07)

       The ഀ western Canadian City is building on its success recruiting members for the ഀ Calgary Police Service (see ഀ picture C.4.08) last ഀ spring. Specifically, The City is looking for bus drivers, town planners and ഀ heavy vehicle mechanics. It's no surprise the transplanted English Bobbies enjoy ഀ working for The City of Calgary. The municipal government has a reputation as ഀ an innovative, award-winning employer. The City offers a competitive salary ഀ and benefits package. It has made significant investments to support employees' ഀ career training and development. At The City, employees make a real impact on ഀ people's lives and build their careers in over 30 distinct business units.

(picture ഀ C.4.08)

  ഀ      One of the fastest growing cities in North America, ഀ Calgary is an exciting place to be - and The City(see ഀ picture C.4.09) is ഀ a dynamic corporation with lots of career options and opportunities.
ഀ         Town planners have the chance to recreate an ഀ exciting downtown core and to be in on "the ground floor" to help ഀ shape a growing community. With an economy in high gear that shows no sign of ഀ slowing down, the opportunities keep coming. Heavy vehicle mechanics like working ഀ for The City because they get to work with the latest technology on the shop ഀ floor, and The City maintains a high safety standard. The environment is innovative, ഀ and The City offers lots of opportunity to advance with robust training and ഀ education programs. Calgary's bus drivers, meanwhile, enjoy the flexibility ഀ of different shifts and the opportunity to train on and drive every type of ഀ vehicle from a 60-foot articulated Bendy (bus) to a three-car.

(picture ഀ C.4.09)


       Edmonton, ഀ the capital of Alberta, is the oil center for western Canada. It is the home ഀ of the West Edmonton Mall (see ഀ picture C.4.10), ഀ an indoor shopping dream with nearly 1,000 stores, a professional-size ice skating ഀ rink, and an indoor water park.

(picture ഀ C.4.10)

The ഀ Atlantic Provinces

       Atlantic Canada's economy ഀ has traditionally relied on a strong resource sector, including fishing, farming, ഀ forestry and mining. The economy has grown and diversified in recent years. ഀ This has led to the development of other sectors, including information technology, ഀ professional services, advanced manufacturing, aquaculture, and oil and gas ഀ exploration. Trade has also increased. Potatoes and fruit from Prince Edward ഀ Island, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are sold across Canada and to other countries. ഀ The food processing industry is another important sector of the economy. New ഀ Brunswick and Nova Scotia have extensive forests that allow them to produce ഀ valuable products like pulp, paper and lumber. Forest products are the most ഀ valuable manufacturing industry in New Brunswick. Many of these products are ഀ exported to other countries.

New Brunswick

  ഀ      The vast sea of trees that is the Canadian forest meets ഀ the Atlantic Ocean in New Brunswick. The province's original European settlers ഀ were French, and New Brunswick still retains its French flavor. The largest ഀ city in the province, Saint John, is the oldest incorporated town in Canada. ഀ The Bay of Fundy, just north of Maine, has the world's highest tides. New ഀ Brunswick has 1,400 miles of coastline, making it a haven for those who ഀ love to fish (see ഀ picture C.4.11).

(picture ഀ C.4.11)

       Any traveler ഀ to New Brunswick should have no trouble finding wonderful things to eat. Lobster ഀ is especially popular, followed closely by oysters, clams, scallops, and mussels. ഀ A special treat is dulse, salty seaweed eaten as a snack. Adventurous visitors ഀ who come to New Brunswick in the spring should take to opportunity to sample ഀ the fiddlehead fern, which is boiled and served with lemon butter, pepper, and ഀ salt.

Nova ഀ Scotia

       The name of this province ഀ means "New Scotland," and the area retains a Scottish favor. However, ഀ the province also has French influence, and there is still a relatively large ഀ native population. No matter its heritage, it is a province centered around ഀ the sea; no part of Nova Scotia is more than 35 miles from the ocean.
ഀ         Halifax, Nova Scotia's capital and the largest city in the Atlantic Provinces, ഀ has one of the finest harbors in the world. The city is a mixture of old and ഀ new. Many of the buildings in the Historic Properties in the center of the city ഀ date to the nineteenth century, but just a block away is Scotia Square, a modern ഀ high-rise apartment/hotel/office/shopping complex. Visitors who want a different ഀ view of the city may choose to take a harbor cruise on the Bluenose II, a schooner ഀ docked at Privateer's Wharf.

Prince ഀ Edward Island

(see ഀ picture C.4.12)

(picture ഀ C.4.12)

  ഀ      Prince Edward Island is Canada's ഀ smallest province (see ഀ picture C.4.13), ഀ 140 miles long, and only 40 miles from shore to shore at its widest point. It ഀ is a wildly beautiful place, with breathtaking red sandstone cliffs on its southern ഀ coast and emerald green forests and fields in the interior. The island has a ഀ 1,100-mile coastline, of which nearly 500 miles are spectacular sandy beaches, ഀ surrounded by water that is, at least in the summer, surprisingly warm.

(picture ഀ C.4.13)

       The island ഀ entertains nearly three-quarters of a million visitors annually. While there ഀ is a wide range of accommodations, many tourists take advantage of vacation ഀ farms, working agricultural enterprises that allow visitors to share the chores ഀ and get a taste of Prince Edward Island farm life. Readers may remember that ഀ Prince Edward Island is the setting for Lucy Maud Montgomery's novel, Anne of ഀ Green Gables. The Green Gables House, open to the public, is situated in Prince ഀ Edward Island National Park.


       Newfoundland, ഀ the largest of the Atlantic Provinces, also has the longest history of European ഀ occupation. Visitors can see the ruins of an eleventh-century Viking outpost ഀ at L'Anse aux Meadows on the northern coast of the island of Newfoundland. Hunting ഀ and fishing vacations are extremely popular in Newfoundland(see ഀ picture C.4.14). ഀ Visitors will also enjoy walking the hilly streets of St. John's, the picturesque ഀ provincial capital and its largest town.

(picture ഀ C.4.14)

  ഀ      Newfoundland and Labrador, traditionally dependent ഀ on the fishing industry, is developing other natural resources such as oil, ഀ nickel, copper and cobalt. Hibernia, off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador, ഀ is the fifth largest oil field in Canada. Manufacturing(see ഀ picture C.4.15) and ഀ other industries continue to grow. The service industry is also very important ഀ to the Atlantic economy. As in the rest of Canada, more people work in banking, ഀ government, and financial and personal services than in traditional resource ഀ industries.

(picture ഀ C.4.15)

  ഀ      The Gulf of the St. Lawrence River and the Atlantic ഀ Ocean (see ഀ picture C.4.16) are ഀ important tourist attractions in the region. Thousands of tourists visit the ഀ Atlantic provinces each year for the spectacular scenery, natural coastlines, ഀ warm beaches and world-class golf courses. About 85,000 Atlantic Canadians work ഀ in the tourism industry.

(picture ഀ C.4.16)

The ഀ West Coast

       This is an area of long ഀ winters, cold blizzards, and undeniable beauty. Very few people live in the ഀ northern part of Canada. Those who visit this part of the world are in awe of ഀ its natural beauty and its unforgiving climates.
ഀ         British Columbia, on the Pacific Ocean, is known for its majestic mountains. ഀ There are three major mountain ranges in the province: the Rocky Mountains, ഀ the Columbia Mountains and the Coast Mountains.

British ഀ Columbia

       This ഀ province has the wettest climate in Canada, but it also contains areas that ഀ are the driest in the country. It contains the warmest area in Canada, as well ഀ as the coldest areas. While most of the province is covered with dense forest, ഀ British Columbia (see ഀ picture C.4.17) also ഀ has an area that exhibits desert-like conditions.

(picture ഀ C.4.17)

  ഀ      British Columbia's earliest European explorers came ഀ from Great Britain, though Spain briefly claimed the area in the 18th century. ഀ The American government also tried to claim the Canadian ഀ West Coast (see ഀ picture C.4.18) in ഀ the middle of the 19th century. First Nations people lived in British Columbia ഀ for thousands of years before European settlers arrived. Their cultures and ഀ languages were influenced by the wide range of geography in British Columbia, ഀ from seashore to mountains. They developed a unique form of art, best known ഀ as totem poles. Their art is popular around the world. It often represents animals, ഀ including salmon, bears, whales, ravens and eagles.

(picture ഀ C.4.18)

       British ഀ Columbia was settled by Europeans when the fur trade spread to the west in the ഀ early 1800s. In the late 1800s, thousands of Chinese came to British Columbia ഀ to help build the final section of the Canadian Pacific Railway. Many of their ഀ descendants still live in the province. Many people come to live in British ഀ Columbia from Asia. Today, about one-third of the population of the Lower British ഀ Columbia Mainland is of Chinese origin. The total population of British Columbia ഀ is about four million people. British Columbia's rich natural resources have ഀ always been important to the economy. The province has the most valuable forestry ഀ industry in Canada. About one-half of all the goods produced in British Columbia ഀ are forestry products, including lumber, newsprint, and pulp and paper products. ഀ Mining is also an important industry. Tourism is the second largest industry ഀ in British Columbia.

(picture ഀ C.4.19)

  ഀ      The natural beauty of the West ഀ Coast (see ഀ picture C.4.19) ഀ and the Rocky Mountains (see ഀ picture C.4.20) bring ഀ thousands of tourists to the province to fish (see ഀ picture C.4.21), ഀ hike, camp and ski in the mountains.

(picture ഀ C.4.20)

(picture ഀ C.4.21)

  ഀ      Steady rainfall and steep mountain slopes in the province ഀ create ideal conditions for generating electricity. British Columbia is Canada's ഀ second largest producer of hydroelectric power. Fishing is also a valuable industry ഀ on the West Coast, but it is going through a major restructuring because of ഀ a downturn in the salmon fishery.
ഀ        The Okanagan Valley
(see ഀ picture C.4.22), ഀ which is located between the mountain ranges in the central area of the province, ഀ is famous for its fruit orchards and its wine industry.

(picture ഀ C.4.22)

The ഀ Canadian Rockies

       The ഀ Rocky Mountains (see ഀ picture C.4.23), ഀ on the border between Alberta and British Columbia, form Canada's geographic ഀ backbone.

(picture ഀ C.4.23)


The ഀ North

       Canada's northern region ഀ is divided into the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut. Together, ഀ they cover more than one-third of Canada. The Canadian government is responsible ഀ for the territories but elected legislatures make decisions on most issues. ഀ The people in the Northwest Territories voted to make the eastern region into ഀ a new, separate territory called Nunavut. It came into existence on April 1, ഀ 1999.

       Aboriginal ഀ people have lived in the North for thousands of years and have developed a special ഀ relationship with the land. They use their skills as hunters, fishers and trappers ഀ to survive in the harsh northern climate. The Yukon, the Northwest Territories ഀ and Nunavut make up more than one-third of Canada's land mass, but only about ഀ 100,000 people live there. Aboriginal people make up about half the population ഀ in the North. The territorial governments have also given legal recognition ഀ to several Aboriginal languages. Land claim settlements and self-government ഀ agreements have played a major role in the development of the North in recent ഀ years. Through these agreements, First Nations people have gained greater control ഀ over their land and decisions that affect them.

       Europeans ഀ first came to the North in the late 1600s because of the fur trade. The Hudson's ഀ Bay Company controlled the northern lands and fur trade for 300 years. Some ഀ northern people, including many Aboriginal peoples, still earn money and obtain ഀ food through hunting, fishing and trapping.
ഀ        Mining, oil and gas are very important to the northern economy. Thousands of ഀ miners first came to the Yukon during the Gold Rush at the end of the 1800s. ഀ There are gold, lead, diamond and zinc mines in the territories today. Oil and ഀ gas deposits are being developed and people continue to explore for more of ഀ these valuable resources. Inuit prints and soapstone carvings are sold throughout ഀ Canada and around the world. In the Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut, ഀ many Aboriginal people work in cooperative businesses to produce Aboriginal ഀ arts and crafts. Tourism is also a growing industry. Economic development in ഀ the North is welcome, but it must be carefully managed so it does not threaten ഀ the fragile Arctic ecosystem and the traditional lifestyles of the northern ഀ people.
ഀ         The North is sometimes called the" Land of the Midnight Sun." At the ഀ height of summer, daylight can last up to 24 hours. In winter, the sun disappears, ഀ and darkness sets in for three months. Winters in the North are long and cold. ഀ During the brief summers, the land blossoms.

The ഀ Yukon

       The ഀ Yukon Territories (see ഀ picture C.4.24) became ഀ well known in the last years of the 19th century when gold was discovered in ഀ the Klondike country.

(picture ഀ C.4.24)

       While ഀ mining is still important to the Yukon and people still come to hunt for gold(see ഀ picture C.4.25), ഀ more come for wilderness tourism, hunting, and fishing. Most visitors come by ഀ air, or by boat through the extraordinary Inside Passage. The Yukon is also ഀ accessible by car, though drivers are advised to always carry emergency supplies ഀ with them. During the winter, temperatures as low as -70 degrees have been recorded ഀ in the Yukon.

(picture ഀ C.4.25)

       The Yukon holds the record ഀ for the coldest temperature ever recorded in Canada (-63°C). Most of the North ഀ is made up of tundra, the vast rocky Arctic plain. Because of the cold Arctic ഀ climate, there are no trees on the tundra, and the soil is permanently frozen.

Dawson ഀ City

       Although ഀ Dawson City is a city in name, it is actually a town. It was originally granted ഀ city status in 1902, but lost that title in the1980's, with special provision ഀ to allow it to use the word city. Dawson is located about 536 kilometres northwest ഀ of Whitehorse, at the end of the Klondike Highway. Like Whitehorse ഀ the city (see ഀ picture C.4.26) was ഀ originally established to cater for the people coming to the area during the ഀ Klondike Gold Rush in the 1890's. By 1898 the city was the largest city in Canada ഀ west of Winnipeg with over 40,000 residents. Once the gold rush was over the ഀ population dropped resulting in only 5,000 people remaining there in 1902. Dawson ഀ City was Yukon's first capital, relinquishing the title to Whitehorse in 1953. ഀ Today, Dawson has a population of just under 2,000, but visitors boost that ഀ number by around 60,000 every year. In fact tourism is one of the most important ഀ economies for the town for both revenue and employment. Accommodation and food ഀ services account for around 18% of the employment in the town. recreation and ഀ arts is also another major employment sector which is growing with around 11% ഀ of the town's employment. Many still (see ഀ picture C.4.27)visit ഀ in the hope of finding gold and others for the spectacular scenery. The Northern ഀ Lights are also a big draw for visitors in Dawson and other Yukon locations.

(picture ഀ C.4.26)

(picture ഀ C.4.27)

Northwest ഀ Territories

       The ഀ Northwest Territories are an outdoor enthusiast's dream. Visitors can travel ഀ the Mackenzie River, one of North America's greatest rivers, by canoe, kayak, ഀ speedboat or raft. The Yellowknife river and the South Nahanni River also offer ഀ unforgettable canoeing experiences. Those who want to see the territories from ഀ a different perspective might consider using a charter aircraft to visit the ഀ secluded lakes ഀ (see picture C.4.28) ഀ and lonely villages.

(picture ഀ C.4.28)


       Nunavut, Canada's newest ഀ territory -- the name means "our land" in the Inuktitut language -- ഀ was established in 1999 in what was formerly the eastern portion of the Northwest ഀ Territories. The population of the territory is relatively small, only about ഀ 30,000 people, but the land presents many opportunities for visitors to hunt, ഀ fish, and enjoy the wilderness experience. While the territory has plenty of ഀ hotel rooms, most of these are more functional than luxurious. Many visitors ഀ take the opportunity to stay in the homes of local Inuit families. Travelers ഀ should remember that prices are relatively high in Nunavut, partly because there ഀ are no roads connecting the territory to the rest of the country, and all goods ഀ must be brought in by plane or by ship.


(picture ഀ C.4.29)

  ഀ      Canada's third-largest city(see ഀ picture C.4.29), ഀ a three-hour drive north of Seattle, is a cosmopolitan and sophisticated place. ഀ Those who live here boast that they can ski and sail on the same day. Vancouver ഀ also has nine miles of public beaches, more than 20 golf courses, nearly 200 ഀ tennis courts, and nearly 250 baseball and soccer fields. Visitors may want ഀ to get a sense of the city by taking an elevator up to the Observation Deck ഀ at the top of the 40-story Harbor Center (see ഀ picture C.4.30).

(picture ഀ C.4.30)

(picture ഀ C.4.31)

  ഀ      From there, one can easily see Gastown(see ഀ picture C.4.31), ഀ the original heart of the city that has been restored as a tourist area, and ഀ Chinatown, Vancouver's thriving active Chinese community. Within easy walking ഀ distance of downtown is Stanley Park, a 1,000-acre rain forest that is the largest ഀ urban park in North America. The park has miles of walkways, sports fields, ഀ and is home to the Stanley Park Zoo. Those who want to get a taste of native ഀ Canadian culture can visit the Museum of Anthropology(see ഀ picture C.4.32) on ഀ the campus of the University of British Columbia. The facility's collection ഀ includes many totem poles.

(picture ഀ C.4.32)


Vancouver ഀ Island and the City of Victoria

       Vancouver ഀ Island, 280 miles long, is North America's largest Pacific island. The island's ഀ trout-filled lakes and forests of fir and cedar make it a delightful getaway ഀ for those who want to hike, hunt, fish, or camp. At the southern end of the ഀ island is the provincial capital of Victoria (see ഀ picture C.4.33), ഀ is said to be the most British city in Canada. Visitors can easily explore the ഀ small city's cobblestone streets and brick sidewalks on foot. Some of the highlights ഀ of a tour might include a visit to the Pacific Undersea Gardens, a natural aquarium ഀ that features the world's only undersea theater, and Thunderbird Park, with ഀ its native longhouse and extraordinary collection of totem poles. The Royal ഀ London Wax Museum contains nearly 200 life-sized figures. In Victoria's suburb ഀ of Esquimalt is a recreation of a Shakespearean-era village, including a thatch-roofed ഀ Anne Hathaway cottage.

(picture ഀ C.4.33)

Banff ഀ National Park

       Banff, ഀ which became Canada's first national park in the 1880s, has been designated ഀ a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The town of Banff, circled by the mountains called ഀ Sulphur, Rundle, Norquay, Tunnel, and Cascade, affords visitors a year-round ഀ experience. In the winter, there is skiing and ice skating. In the summer, the ഀ area is a haven for hikers and campers. At any time of the year, visitors can ഀ enjoy the town's hot springs. Canada's most photogenic spot is Lake ഀ Louise(see ഀ picture C.4.34), ഀ named after the daughter of Queen Victoria. Overlooking ഀ the lake (see ഀ picture C.4.36) ഀ is Chateau Lake Louise (see ഀ picture C.4.35), ഀ a super deluxe resort with more than 500 rooms for visitors.

(picture ഀ C.4.34)

(picture ഀ C.4.35)

(picture ഀ C.4.36)

Waterston ഀ Lakes National Park

       This ഀ park, located on the Montana border adjacent to the U.S. Glacier National Park, ഀ became the first international peace park in 1932. Waterston ഀ Lakes (see ഀ picture C.4.37) is ഀ smaller than its neighbors to the north, and sees fewer visitors. It is the ഀ perfect destination for a visitor who wants to see the Canadian Rockies in all ഀ their grandeur without having to share the vista with large crowds.

(picture ഀ C.4.37)

Central ഀ Canada

  ഀ      Central Canada is made up of Ontario and Quebec. More ഀ than half the people in Canada live in cities and towns in southern Quebec and ഀ Ontario, close to the Great Lakes (see ഀ picture C.4.38) and ഀ the St. Lawrence River. This area is the industrial and manufacturing heartland ഀ of Canada. Together, Ontario and Quebec produce more than three-quarters of ഀ all Canadian manufactured goods.

       The adventurous ഀ may try a drive on the Alaskan Highway, a 1,500-mile road that starts at Dawson ഀ Creek on the Alberta border north of Jasper National Park and ends at Fairbanks, ഀ Alaska. The highway, built in less than a year during World War II by Canada ഀ and the United States Army, is one of the world's most exciting driving adventures. ഀ At its highest point, the road reaches more than 4,000 feet above sea level.


(picture ഀ C.4.38)

  ഀ      Ontario is the Canadian province with the largest population. ഀ Over11 million people, or roughly one third of Canada's population, live in ഀ Ontario. Most people in Ontario speak English, but the province also has the ഀ largest French-speaking population outside of Quebec. The Algonquin and Iroquois ഀ First Nations were the earliest people to live in the area now known as Ontario. ഀ By the late 1700s, the population began to grow rapidly. The arrival of thousands ഀ of United Empire Loyalists was followed by waves of other newcomers from the ഀ United States and Britain. Newcomers from all over the world continue to settle ഀ in Ontario.
ഀ        The name "Ontario" is derived from ഀ the Iroquois word for "shining waters." The province is immense, nearly ഀ half a million square miles, from the bustling Great Lakes to the sparsely-populated ഀ wilderness of Hudson Bay. It is a province of big cities and family farms, factories ഀ and native crafts, miners, loggers, and computer programmers.
ഀ         Throughout Canada's history, the large population, ഀ rich resources and strategic location of Ontario have helped the province build ഀ Canada's biggest provincial economy. Most people in Ontario work in the service ഀ or manufacturing industries. More than 140,000 people work in the province's ഀ automobile industry, which accounts for more than one third of Canada's total ഀ exports. Other manufactured goods include steel, machinery, metal, plastic and ഀ chemical products, and food. Ontario mines are the biggest producers of metal ഀ in Canada. These metals include nickel, gold, silver, platinum, uranium, zinc ഀ and copper. Ontario's forestry industry produces pulp, lumber, newsprint and ഀ other paper products. The province's numerous rivers are a vital source of electric ഀ power. In Ontario, Niagara Falls
(see ഀ picture C.4.39 and picture ഀ C.4.40) ഀ is a well-known example of waterpower that generates electricity.

(picture ഀ C.4.39)

(picture ഀ C.4.40)

     ഀ   More than 400,000 Ontario workers depend on tourism, the province's ഀ third largest industry. Southern Ontario has rich farmland.
ഀ         The Niagara Peninsula is a major producer of ഀ peaches, apples, grapes and other fruit crops. Ontario farmers also raise dairy ഀ and beef cattle, poultry, and vegetable and grain crops.
ഀ        Canada's capital city, Ottawa is located in ഀ eastern Ontario, at the junction of three rivers: the mighty Ottawa, the Gatineau ഀ and the Rideau. It is home to the oldest continuously operated canal system ഀ in North America, and in2007, the Rideau Canal was registered as a UNESCO World ഀ Heritage Site. Connecting Lake Ontario with the Ottawa River, the Rideau Canal ഀ ends in Ottawa with a set of locks right beside the Parliament Buildings. We ഀ will have an introduction to this stately city before an overnight in town at ഀ the distinguished Fairmont Chateau Laurier hotel and our early charter flight ഀ in the morning.


  ഀ      This city of 3.5 million is the heart of English Canada. ഀ A good place to start exploring the city is Yonge Street, "the ഀ longest street in the world" (see ഀ picture C.4.41).

(picture ഀ C.4.41)

  ഀ      This artery starts on the shore of Lake Ontario and ഀ stretches 1,000 miles north, under various names, into the Canadian wilderness. ഀ In Toronto, Yonge is a shopper's delight, offering a range of items from the ഀ funky to the fabulous. A few block from Yonge is the 1,815-foot tall CN Tower, ഀ the tallest freestanding structure in the world. From the revolving restaurant ഀ and observation tower, visitors can see more than 50 miles. Near Queen's Park ഀ and the University of Toronto, one finds the Sigmund Samuel ഀ Canadiana Gallery (see ഀ picture C.4.42), ഀ devoted to art and antiques, the McLaughlin Planetarium, and the city's most ഀ fascinating tourist attraction, the Royal Canadian Museum. This facility contains ഀ nearly five million human artifacts, fossils, and gems, and has a huge collection ഀ of material from China, including a Ming Dynasty Tomb.

(picture ഀ C.4.42)


(picture ഀ C.4.43)

       Quebec is the second most ഀ populous province in Canada with7,546,131 people calling it home.

(picture ഀ C.4.44)

       It is ഀ also the largest province in the country with a land area of1,356,366 square ഀ kilometres.

(picture ഀ C.4.45)

  ഀ      Only one other territory is larger: Nunavut(see ഀ picture C.4.43 and picture C.4.44). ഀ Quebec is located to the east of Ontario and is bordered to its east by New ഀ Brunswick and Labrador ഀ (see picture C.4.45). ഀ Nearly all of Quebec lies within the Canadian Shield dating back to the ice ഀ ages, this means it is rich in mineral deposits which contributes heavily to ഀ the economy. French is the official language in Quebec with over 80% of the ഀ speaking it as a first language and over population 40% speaking both French ഀ and English. So if you are not a French speaker then Quebec is probably not ഀ the place for you. It is the only Canadian province with French as the official ഀ language. In 2006 a total of 44,677 people moved to Quebec from other countries, ഀ most of them to Montreal, the largest city in the province. The majority of ഀ people originate from Africa, the Middle East and Europe.

(picture ഀ C.4.46)

  ഀ      The main economies in Quebec are science and technology ഀ (see ഀ picture C.4.46), ഀ tourism, transportation and natural resources. For many year natural resources ഀ dominated Quebec's economy, but in recent years the service sectors have taken ഀ over and now account for over 70% of the Gross Domestic Product. Many jobs in ഀ the province are within the communication and information sectors with over ഀ 5,000 companies employing over 100,000 people. Quebec ranks fourth in North ഀ America in terms of the number of biotechnology companies and has six of the ഀ seven research centres of multinational pharmaceutical companies in Canada. ഀ Aerospace is also a big player in Quebec with the Canadian Space Agency headquartered ഀ here. Quebec ranks sixth in the world in terms of output in this aerospace industry ഀ in the province. One person in 200 works in the Tourism is also important to ഀ Quebec which sees on average 30 million visitors each year. These visitors generate ഀ revenue in excess of $10 billion. The province has over 90 ski resorts making ഀ it a prime winter destination. The province is also home to the Canadian Grand ഀ Prix, and the Rogers Cup. Over 330,000 people work within Quebec's tourism industry.

       The first ഀ people to live in Quebec were the First Nations people and the Inuit. The Aboriginal ഀ peoples who lived near the St. Lawrence River were fur traders who taught the ഀ early settlers how to survive. There are still many Aboriginal communities throughout ഀ Quebec today. Settlers from France first established communities along the St. ഀ Lawrence River in the early 1600s. Today, Quebec society reflects this heritage. ഀ More than three-quarters of the Canadians who live in Quebec speak French as ഀ their first language. Over one-third of the population in Quebec speaks both ഀ French and English, making it the province with the highest number of bilingual ഀ Canadians. The province preserves and promotes the historic language and culture ഀ of its French-speaking citizens. About seven million people live in Quebec. ഀ It is Canada's largest province.

  ഀ      Quebec is highly industrialized and its economy is ഀ quite diverse. The Montreal region has been an important financial, service ഀ and industrial centre since Confederation. Workers produce fabric, clothing,
ഀ food, paper, metal, and chemical and wood products. Montr?al is the main commercial ഀ centre of Quebec, and has developed competitive industries in space and aeronautics, ഀ energy and pharmaceuticals. It is also the centre
ഀ of a vast transportation network. The resources of the Canadian Shield have ഀ helped Quebec develop important industries, including forestry, energy and mining. ഀ Quebec is Canada's main producer of pulp and paper and a major producer of minerals ഀ such as asbestos, gold, copper, silver and iron ore. The province's huge supply ഀ of freshwater has allowed it to become Canada's largest producer of hydroelectricity.
ഀ        There are many farms around the lowland areas of the St. Lawrence, where vegetables, ഀ fruit and feed crops are grown. Dairy farms are common. Quebec has the largest ഀ dairy farming industry in Canada. Quebec's provincial parks, the Laurentian ഀ Mountains and its many historic sites play an important role in its tourism ഀ industry.


(picture ഀ C.4.47)

  ഀ      Montreal (see ഀ picture C.4.47) is ഀ the largest city in Quebec and is located on the Island of Montreal where the ഀ St Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers meet and is surrounded by the St Lawrence River. ഀ It is connected to the mainland by a series of bridges. In the centre of the ഀ island is Mont Royal, a 233 metre extinct volcano. With a population of 3,635,571 ഀ according to the 2006 census, it is the most populous city in the province. ഀ In 2006 over 38,000 people moved to the city from outside Canada. Montreal is ഀ the largest inland port in the world where many ships stop off between the Atlantic ഀ and the Great Lakes. This has meant the city has become a hub for the Canadian ഀ Pacific Railway and the Canadian National Railway.
ഀ         Major industries within the city include pharmaceuticals, ഀ textiles, high technology, clothing manufacturing, education, electronics and ഀ software engineering. The city is one of the world's largest aeronautics centres, ഀ along with Seattle (USA) and Toulouse (France). Montreal also ranks fourth in ഀ North America
(see ഀ picture C.4.48) in ഀ terms of employment in the pharmaceutical sector.

(picture ഀ C.4.48)


  ഀ      It is the largest city located in the Bay of Quinte ഀ region (pronounced kwin-tee) and has a population of 49,000 people. It is minutes ഀ away from the picturesque Prince Edward County which we featured last month. ഀ Whether you are thinking of visiting the area or making a more permanent move ഀ then Belleville could be just the place you are looking for. The city is ideally ഀ located in Eastern Ontario between Toronto, Ottawa and Montreal and less than ഀ an hour from the US border crossing. The busy highway(see ഀ picture C.4.49) ഀ 401, a main arterial road through Ontario skirts the city, as do numerous rail ഀ links. It is a bustling city surrounded by beautiful countryside.

(picture ഀ C.4.49)

       Belleville ഀ is at the heart of the Quinte region and is an excellent base for trips to the ഀ surrounding areas. The city has many hotels and motels as well as bed and breakfasts ഀ offering every type of accommodation for every budget. There
ഀ are also many restaurants catering to every pallet.
ഀ        The city is the manufacturing, distribution and transportation centre for the ഀ southeastern area of Ontario. It has a diverse economy which includes food processing, ഀ warehousing, plastics packaging, call centres, pharmaceutical and automotive ഀ parts. Belleville is home to many local, national and international companies ഀ including Bioniche Life Sciences, Nortel Networks, Procter & Gamble, Sears ഀ Canada, Stream International, The Kellogg Company to name but a few. It will ഀ also soon be the location of a large Lowes D.I.Y warehouse which is currently ഀ under construction to the north of the city. Large public sector companies include ഀ Hastings Prince Edward Board Of Education, Quinte Health Care Corp, Algonquin ഀ Lakeshore Catholic School Board, Loyalist College Applied Arts and the City ഀ of Belleville.


  ഀ      Queen Victoria chose the site of the new Dominion of ഀ Canada in the mid-nineteenth century (see ഀ picture C.4.50). ഀ Her choice pleased no one the French Canadians had lobbied for Quebec City, ഀ and those of English heritage wanted either Toronto of Kingston. By that simple ഀ decision, sleepy little Bytown was transformed into Ottawa, a world capital. ഀ A good place to start a tour of Ottawa is at the Peace Tower, a neo-Gothic structure ഀ that rises nearly 300 feet above Ottawa's Parliament complex. Every day during ഀ the summer, if the weather allows it, visitors can see soldiers wearing red ഀ coats and bearskin hats change the guard in a ceremony not unlike the one that ഀ takes place at Buckingham Palace in London.

(picture ഀ C.4.50)

Southern ഀ Ontario

       The ഀ area bordered by Lake Huron, Lake Ontario (see ഀ picture C.4.51), ഀ and Lake Erie offers visitors a rich variety of activities for the visitor, ഀ including battle sites from the American forays into Canada during the War of ഀ 1812, and automobile manufacturing plants at Oshawa and Hamilton. Fans of auto ഀ racing might want to visit Mosport, home of the Grand Prix of Canada.

(picture ഀ C.4.51)

Comprehension ഀ Check

1. What is the population ഀ of Canada?
ഀ 2. What three oceans border on Canada?
ഀ 3. What is the capital city of Canada?
ഀ 4. Name all the provinces and territories and their capital cities.
ഀ 5. Name the five regions of Canada.
ഀ 6. Which region covers more than one-third of Canada?
ഀ 7. In which region do more than half the people in Canada live?
ഀ 8. One-third of all Canadians live in which province?
ഀ 9. Where are the Canadian Rockies?
ഀ 10. Where are the Great Lakes?
ഀ 11. Which mountain range is on the border between Alberta and British Columbia?
ഀ 12. Where are the Parliament buildings located?
ഀ 13. Which country borders Canada on the south?
ഀ 14. What are the Prairie provinces?
ഀ 15. Which province in Canada is the smallest in land size?
ഀ 16. What is a major river in Quebec?
ഀ 17. On what date did Nunavut become a territory?


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The ഀ Culture and Sport

(picture ഀ C.5.01)

  ഀ      Canadian culture has historically been influenced by ഀ British, French, and Aboriginal cultures and traditions. It has also been influenced ഀ by American culture because the two countries are close to each other. American ഀ media and entertainment are popular if not dominant in English Canada. Also, ഀ many Canadian cultural products and entertainers are successful in the US and ഀ worldwide. Many cultural products are marketed toward a unified "North ഀ American" or global market.
ഀ        The creation and preservation of distinctly ഀ Canadian culture are supported by federal government programs, laws and institutions ഀ such as the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board ഀ of Canada (NFB), and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission ഀ (CRTC).
ഀ         Canada is a geographically vast and ethnically ഀ diverse country. There are differences in culture from province to province ഀ and region to region. Canadian culture has also been greatly influenced by immigration ഀ from all over the world. Many Canadians value multiculturalism, and see Canadian ഀ culture as being inherently multicultural. Multicultural heritage is the basis ഀ of Section 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
ഀ         National symbols are influenced by natural, ഀ historical, and First Nations sources. Particularly, the use of the maple leaf ഀ as a Canadian symbol dates back to the early 18th century and is depicted on ഀ its current and previous flags, the penny, and on the coat of arms. Other prominent ഀ symbols include the beaver, Canada goose, common loon, the Crown, and the RCMP. ഀ
ഀ         Canada's official national sports are ice hockey ഀ (winter) and lacrosse (summer). Hockey is a national pastime and the most popular ഀ spectator sport in the country. It is the most popular sport Canadians play, ഀ with 1.65 million active participants in 2004. Canada's six largest metropolitan ഀ areas - Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, and Edmonton - have franchises ഀ in the National Hockey League (NHL), and there are more Canadian players in ഀ the league than from all other countries combined. After hockey, other popular ഀ spectator sports include curling and football; the latter is played professionally ഀ in the Canadian Football League (CFL). Golf, baseball, skiing, soccer, volleyball, ഀ and basketball are widely played at youth and amateur levels, but professional ഀ leagues and franchises are not as widespread.
ഀ         Canada has hosted several high-profile international ഀ sporting events, including the 1976 Summer Olympics, the 1988 Winter Olympics, ഀ and the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup. Canada will be the host country for the 2010 ഀ Winter Olympics in Vancouver and Whistler, British Columbia.
ഀ        A Kwakwaka'wakw ഀ totem pole and traditional "big house" in Victoria
(see ഀ picture C.5.01), ഀ BC.

       Canadian ഀ culture has historically been influenced by British, French, and Aboriginal ഀ cultures and traditions. It has also been influenced by American culture because ഀ of its proximity and migration between the two countries. American media and ഀ entertainment are popular if not dominant in English Canada; conversely, many ഀ Canadian cultural products and entertainers are successful in the US and worldwide. ഀ Many cultural products are marketed toward a unified" North American" ഀ or global market. The creation and preservation of distinctly Canadian culture ഀ are supported by federal government programs, laws and institutions such as ഀ the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC), the National Film Board of Canada ഀ (NFB), and the Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission (CRTC).

       Canada ഀ is a geographically vast and ethnically diverse country. There are cultural ഀ variations and distinctions from province to province and region to region. ഀ Canadian culture has also been greatly influenced by immigration from all over ഀ the world. Many Canadians value multiculturalism, and see Canadian culture as ഀ being inherently multicultural. Multicultural heritage is the basis of Section ഀ 27 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
ഀ        The Royal Canadian Mounted Police, seen here at Expo 67, are the federal and ഀ national police force of Canada and an international icon. National symbols ഀ are influenced by natural, historical, and First Nations sources. Particularly, ഀ the use of the maple leaf as a Canadian symbol dates back to the early 18th ഀ century and is depicted on its current and previous flags, the penny, and on ഀ the coat of arms. Other prominent symbols include the beaver, Canada goose, ഀ common loon, the Crown, the RCMP, and more recently the totem pole and inukchuk.

ഀ        Canada's official national sports are ice hockey
(see ഀ picture C.5.02)(winter) ഀ and lacrosse (summer). Hockey is a national pastime and the most popular spectator ഀ sport in the country. It is the most popular sport Canadians play, with 1.65 ഀ million active participants in 2004.

(picture ഀ C.5.02)

       Canada's ഀ six largest metropolitan areas - Toronto, Montreal, Vancouver, Ottawa, Calgary, ഀ and Edmonton - have franchises in the National Hockey League (NHL), and there ഀ are more Canadian players in the league than from all other countries combined. ഀ After hockey, other popular spectator sports include curling and football; the ഀ latter is played professionally in the Canadian Football League (CFL). Golf, ഀ baseball, skiing, soccer, volleyball, and basketball are widely played at youth ഀ and amateur levels, but professional leagues and franchises are not as widespread. ഀ

       Canada ഀ hosted several high-profile international sporting events, including the1976 ഀ Summer Olympics, the 1988 Winter Olympics, and the 2007 FIFA U-20 World Cup ഀ Canada will be the host country for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver and ഀ Whistler, British Columbia.

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ഀ ഀ

       The fauna ഀ of Canada is considered to be diverse across Canada. Canada has multiple ecosystems, ഀ ranging from lush forests of British Columbia, to the prairies of Western Canada, ഀ to the tundra of the Northern Canada. With a large land mass, and small population ഀ density, the wildlands of Canada provide important habitat for many animals, ഀ both endangered and not.


       Mammals ഀ are found in all the regions of Canada. Members of six orders of placental mammals ഀ inhabit Canada (see ഀ picture C.6.01,picture C.6.02,picture ഀ C.6.03 and picture C.6.04). ഀ They are the bats, carnivores (including the pinnipeds), artiodactyls, cetaceans, ഀ insectivores, and rodents (including the lagomorphs). Additionally, one species ഀ of marsupial, the opossum, can now be found in southern Canada.

(picture ഀ C.6.01) ഀ (picture C.6.02)

(picture ഀ C.6.03)

(picture ഀ C.6.04)

       Because ഀ of its large wild spaces, Canada is home to many large mammals, some of which ഀ have been extirpated in more densely populated areas, for example large predators ഀ such as the gray wolf and the brown bear. Well known as "Canadian" ഀ are those mammals that are comfortable in the north, such as the caribou, the ഀ moose, the wolverine, and the musk ox. In the springtime, great herds of caribou ഀ migrate from the forest to their summer calving grounds. On the Eastern Shield, ഀ the George River herd of Quebec Labrador caribou is one of the largest herds ഀ in the world with an estimated 700,000 to 800,000 animals. On the Western Shield, ഀ the Bathurst herd of barren ground caribou has about 350,000 animals that summer ഀ around Bathurst Inlet. To the west of Hudson Bay, the Qamanirjuaq (Kaminuriak) ഀ herd numbers about 500,000 while the Thelon Game Sanctuary is located within ഀ the range of the Beverly herd of approximately 300,000 animals.
ഀ        The arrival of caribou to the Barren Grounds marks the advent of the Central ഀ Arctic's brief summer. It was a time of celebration for local Inuit groups and ഀ in years of scarcity, the difference between survival and starvation. Caribou, ഀ musk oxen, migratory birds and other creatures are lured by the rich food supply ഀ of tundra meadows with low growing sedges, grasses, small wild berries, wildflowers, ഀ mosses and lichens as well as the dwarf birches and Arctic willows that grow ഀ in river valleys.

  ഀ      Other prominent Canadian mammals are the Canada ഀ lynx (see ഀ picture C.6.01), ഀ and the North American beaver, which is a major symbol of Canada. Among them ഀ are domestic mammals (see ഀ picture C.6.05), ഀ such as the horse, pig, sheep, dog, cat, and cattle, and wild mammals, such ഀ as the brown rat and the house mouse. . In addition to these native mammals, ഀ many Eurasian mammals were introduced (either intentionally or accidentally) ഀ by European colonists.
ഀ ഀ

(picture ഀ C.6.05)

       There ഀ are twenty-two species of ocean mammals off the coast of Newfoundland and Labrador. ഀ There are two types of whales, baleen and toothed. Baleen whales have bristle ഀ like baleen plates instead of teeth. The baleen is made of keratin the same ഀ substance found in hair, nails and horns and the whale uses them to filter water ഀ and catch food. Toothed whales have a set of teeth they use to catch and eat ഀ food.

  ഀ      Humpback whales: The most ഀ common whale here is the humpback whale (pictured on our title page) and Newfoundland ഀ and Labrador has the largest population of feeding Humpbacks in the world. The ഀ Humpbacks spend the months in the Caribbean and migrate winter north to the ഀ Newfoundland and Labrador coast during April and stay until October. Humpbacks ഀ are baleen whales and the adults can weigh 36,000 kilograms and measure 12-15 ഀ metres in length. Females tend to weigh more than males and are longer. Adults ഀ can eat two tons of fish and planktonic crustaceans every day. They only feed ഀ during the summer, living off reserves in the winter months. This species is ഀ know to catch fish using a bubble net feeding technique. This is where a number ഀ of humpbacks encircle a school of fish whilst blowing air bubbles. The circle ഀ grows ever tighter forcing the fish into a small area when the whales suddenly ഀ swim upwards through the fish
ഀ catching thousands in one mouthful. Females give birth every two or three years ഀ and have a gestation period of 12 months. The calf will weigh around one ton ഀ at birth and be 3-5 metres in length. They typically feed from their mother ഀ for the first year. Humpbacks are notorious for their acrobatic skills and can ഀ be seen jumping out of the water - known as breeching - and falling back, slapping ഀ the water. They are also the star of many a photograph when they dive under ഀ the water raising their tail flukes in the air, as pictured to the side. Individual ഀ whales can be distinguished by their tail flukes as each one is unique. This ഀ is rare amongst whales making them one of the most studies species.

(picture ഀ C.6.06)

  ഀ      Minke whales (see ഀ picture C.6.06): ഀ These whales have a distinctive narrow, triangular shaped head and are one of ഀ the smallest baleen whales. They are very fast in the water reaching speeds ഀ of 16-21 kilometers an hour. They can be seen in the bays around Newfoundland ഀ and Labrador but spend most of their time below water, so can be more difficult ഀ to spot. They are however curious and will often approach boats and swim alongside. ഀ They are most common in summer and early fall. Adult males measure around 8-9 ഀ metres in length and females slightly longer at 8-10 metres. Both weigh around10 ഀ tons and feed on krill and small fish. Females give birth once every two years ഀ and calves measure around 3 metres and weight 450 kg at birth. They nurse for ഀ around six months.

(picture ഀ C.6.07)

  ഀ      Pilot Whale (see ഀ picture C.6.07): ഀ This whale is actually a member of the dolphin family and is very intelligent ഀ and second in size only to the orca or killer whale. They swim in large groups ഀ of around one hundred individuals and are very social. They have a distinctive ഀ round bulbous head with a long, stocky body. Unlike the previous two species ഀ we discussed the male pilot is larger than the female at around 6 meters in ഀ length and weighing in at three tons. The female is around 5 metres and weighs ഀ only 1.5 tons. Pilot whales are toothed whales but only have 40-48 teeth compared ഀ to the usual 120 or so in other dolphin species. They feed primarily on squid ഀ but also eat octopus, cuttlefish an other small fish such as herring. Females ഀ give birth only every 3-5 years and calves are typically around 1.8 metres in ഀ length and weigh 100 kg at birth: they nurse for around two years. Pilot whales ഀ can be seen in the Newfoundland and Labrador water during summer and early fall.

(picture ഀ C.6.08)

  ഀ      Finback Whales (see ഀ picture C.6.08 and picture ഀ C.6.09): ഀ These whales are huge and the second largest whale in the world. They have very ഀ distinctive lower jaw colouring with the right side being white or creamy yellow ഀ and the left mottled black. The colours are reversed on its tongue. These whales ഀ tend to be found further from the shore than most other species and so may only ഀ be seen from a boat, usually in small groups of 5-8 individuals. Adult males ഀ grow to around 24 metres in length and weigh between

(picture ഀ C.6.09)

50-70 tons. Females give ഀ birth every three or four years and the calf nurses for 6-8 months.

  ഀ      Blue Whale: This whale ഀ is the largest mammal ever to have lived on earth. Adults can reach lengths ഀ of over 30 metres but are more usually between23-25 metres. The largest ever ഀ found was 33 metres in length. Females are larger and can weigh up to 150 tons ഀ compared to around 100 tons for males. Surprisingly for such a huge animal they ഀ feed on small fish and krill but have to eat around four tons a day which equates ഀ to around 40 million krill a day. Females give birth every two or three years ഀ to a calf weighing tons and measuring 8 metres in length. Calves are weaned ഀ at around 8 months by which time they weight around 23 tons. The best time to ഀ catch a glimpse of a blue whale in Newfoundland and Labrador is in the fall ഀ and winter months.

  ഀ      Orca (see ഀ picture C.6.10): ഀ Also commonly known as the killer whale, Orcas are seen off the coast of Newfoundland ഀ and Labrador during the summer months. These are probably some of the most familiar ഀ species of whale with their distinctive black and white markings. Every orca ഀ has its own distinctive markings making each individual identifiable. This makes ഀ them another well studied species. The dorsal fin is also very distinctive and ഀ can reach 1.8 metres in length and is a straight triangle shape on males and ഀ a more curved triangle on females and young males. Orcas in captivity seem to ഀ loose the rigidity of their dorsal fin allowing it to bend over to the side. ഀ This phenomenon is not seen in the wild. Orcas are toothed whales and will feed ഀ on any small animals including seals, sharks, penguins and other smaller whales. ഀ Males can grow to just under 10 metres in length and weigh around 9 tons. Females ഀ are much smaller at around 8 metres weighing an average of four tons.

They give ഀ birth every 3-5 years and the calf will be around two metres in length. The ഀ summer months are the best time to spot Orcas off the coast of Newfoundland ഀ and Labrador.

(picture ഀ C.6.10)

  ഀ      White-sided Dolphin (see ഀ picture C.6.11): ഀ These playful dolphins can often be seen jumping out of the water and riding ഀ the waves. They tend to be found in large groups from a few dozen to many hundreds. ഀ The belly of the dolphin is white, the sides grey and the back black. It has ഀ a black beak and a black eye ring and a yellow patch at the rear of the dorsal ഀ fin making it a very attractively colored dolphin. They tend to be around 2-2.5 ഀ metres in length and weigh around 150 kg. They eat squid and small fish such ഀ as herrings and tend to feed at night. Females give birth every two or three ഀ years and the calf is usually about a metre in length.

(picture ഀ C.6.11)

Other ഀ species (see ഀ picture C.6.12):

(picture ഀ C.6.12)

Birds(see ഀ picture C.6.13):

(picture ഀ C.6.13)

A ഀ Canada goose

       Canada's ഀ avifauna comprises 462 species, members of seventeen orders of bird. The two ഀ most diverse orders are the passerines and the charadriiformes. The most commonly ഀ known birds include the Canada goose, snowy owl, and the common raven. Another ഀ prominent Canadian bird is the whooping crane, whose only breeding grounds are ഀ protected in Wood Buffalo National Park.


       Canada ഀ has forty-three species of reptile, including turtles, lizards, and snakes. ഀ Of the major types of reptile, only crocodiles are not found in Canada.
ഀ        Canada has twenty-five species of snake, representing three families. Most Canadian ഀ snakes are members of the colubrid family, including several species of garter ഀ snake. Additionally, the western provinces have species of pit viper, such as ഀ the western rattlesnake, and British Columbia has Canada's only species of boa, ഀ the rubber boa.

       Canada ഀ is home to six species of lizard, all living along the southern border with ഀ the United States.

       Canada ഀ also has twelve species of turtle, representing six families. A common turtle ഀ in Canada is the painted turtle, which can be found in all ten of Canada's southern ഀ provinces, except Newfoundland and Labrador.
ഀ Nunavut, the Yukon, and Newfoundland & Labrador have no reptiles.


       Canada ഀ has forty-three types of amphibian, including salamanders as well as frogs and ഀ toads.

       Canada's ഀ salamanders are found in all ten provinces, but none live in the three northern ഀ territories. Notable salamanders of Canada include the common spotted salamander ഀ of eastern Canada, and the rare pacific giant salamander of British Columbia's ഀ coastal rainforest.

       Frogs ഀ and toads are found in every region of Canada, though more are found in the ഀ south. Canada is home to five families of frogs and toads, including the true ഀ frogs, true toads, and tree frogs, which are found in every province and territory ഀ (except Nunavut, which only has true frogs), the spadefoots, which are found ഀ in the prairie provinces, and the tailed frog, which is found only in British ഀ Columbia.


       Canada's ഀ rivers are famous for their annual runs of Atlantic salmon on the east coast ഀ and, on the west coast, Pacific salmon. Canada's many freshwater lakes and streams ഀ are home to rainbow trout, Arctic char, and brook trout. There are significant ഀ commercial fisheries in many salt-water species, including Atlantic cod, haddock ഀ and halibut, although some of these are in decline.


       Due partially ഀ to the harshness of its winters, Canada has no native poisonous insects. Common ഀ Canadian insects include the mosquito and black fly.


  ഀ      The flora of Canada is ഀ quite diverse, due to the wide range of ecoregions and environmental conditions ഀ present in Canada. From the warm, temperate broadleaf forests of southern Ontario ഀ to the frigid Arctic plains of the Northern Canada, from the wet temperate rainforests ഀ of the west coast to the arid deserts, badlands and tundra plains, the biodiversity ഀ of Canada's plants is extensive (see ഀ picture C.6.14) ഀ .

(picture ഀ C.6.14)

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ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ ഀ
English ഀ Name
January ഀ 1
New ഀ Year's Day
Statutory. ഀ Celebrates the first day of every year in the Gregorian calendar. Also January ഀ 2 in Quebec.
Friday ഀ before Easter Sunday
Good ഀ Friday
Statutory, ഀ except in Quebec where Easter Monday is statutory. Acknowledges the crucifixion ഀ of Jesus Christ, traditionally on 3 April, 33 AD; see Good Friday article ഀ for details. Not fully observed in Quebec.
Easter ഀ Sunday
Statutory, ഀ although falls on a Sunday. Many government agencies take off Easter Monday ഀ in lieu of Sunday.
Monday ഀ on or before May 24
Victoria ഀ Day
Statutory, ഀ except in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. Celebration ഀ of the birthday of the current Canadian monarch. (Originally, May 24 was ഀ the birthday of Queen Victoria.) In Quebec, Victoria Day and the National ഀ Patriot's Day (Commemoration of the Lower Canada Rebellion) are celebrated ഀ on the same day.
July ഀ 1
Canada ഀ Day
Statutory. ഀ Commemoration of Canada's 1867 Confederation. In Newfoundland and Labrador, ഀ Canada Day and Memorial Day (Commemoration of the Battle of the Somme) are ഀ celebrated on the same day. If July 1 is a Sunday, the holiday is legally ഀ on July 2.
First ഀ Monday in September
Labour ഀ Day
Second ഀ Monday in October
Statutory, ഀ except in New Brunswick, Newfoundland, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. ഀ A day of general thanks for one's blessings. (Note: Thanksgiving is not ഀ celebrated on the same day as it is in the U.S.)
November ഀ 11
Remembrance ഀ Day
Statutory ഀ holiday everywhere except Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec, and Nova Scotia (Remembrance ഀ Day is a special case in Nova Scotia). Commemoration of Canada's war dead. ഀ Anniversary of the armistice ending World War I in 1918.
December ഀ 25
Christmas ഀ Day
Statutory. ഀ Celebrates the birth of Jesus Christ.
December ഀ 26
Boxing ഀ Day
Statutory ഀ in Ontario and federal jurisdictions. It is not an official Holiday in Quebec ഀ and is not a Statutory Holiday in British Columbia.
ഀ ഀ

Calgary ഀ Stampede

  ഀ      The famous Calgary Stampede will take place between ഀ July3rd and 13th at Stampede Park in Calgary, Alberta. Stampede Park is located ഀ southeast of downtown Calgary along Macleod Trail between 12 Avenue S.E. and ഀ 25 Avenue S.E. The park will be open from 11 a.m. to midnight every day, although ഀ indoor attractions and commercial exhibits will close at 11 p.m. www.calgarystampede.com

Belleville ഀ Waterfront Ethnic Festival

       Enjoy free admission to ഀ this fun event taking place in Belleville, Ontario between July 10th and 13th. ഀ The festival includes arts and crafts, children's village, music, fireworks, ഀ parades, dragon boat racing and lots more. Find the festival at West Zwicks ഀ Island Park on the waterfront.
ഀ www.bellevillewaterfrontfestival.com

Great ഀ Northern Arts Festival

       If ഀ you happen to be in the Northwest Territories then why not stop off and enjoy ഀ the Great Northern Arts Festival being held in Inuvik. The festival takes place ഀ between July11th and 20th and will include arts and crafts, galleries, concerts, ഀ workshops, music and lots of other things to keep you entertained. www.gnaf.org

Halifax Highland Games and Scottish ഀ Festival

ഀ        You don't have to be Scottish to enjoy this event held at Dartmouth Common, ഀ Nova Scotia. Join in the fun on Saturday July12th with piping, drumming, highland ഀ dancing, golf and of course the games themselves. www.halifaxhighlandgames.com

Quebec ഀ City's Summer Festival

       To experience ഀ Quebec City's Summer Festival, is to take part in the largest With 400 shows ഀ and 200 groups over outdoor arts festival in Canada. 11 days, the excitement ഀ in the art of majestic Qu?bec City will be contagious. Taking place between ഀ July 3rd and the 13th with Rock, world music, French, jazz, classical, street ഀ art, the Festival has exclusive and large scale events to suit every taste.
ഀ www.infofestival.com

Winnipeg ഀ Folk Festival

       Taking place between July ഀ 10th and13th the Winnipeg Folk Festival will entertain you with performances ഀ from groups from across Canada and the rest of the world. See Folk-Rock, Joan ഀ Armatrading, The Beautiful Girls, Geoff Berner amongst many others. Find them ഀ all at Birds Hill Provincial Park.
ഀ www.winnipegfolkfestival.ca

Caribana ഀ Festival, Toronto

       The Caribana ഀ Festival is an exciting two-week cultural explosion of Caribbean music, cuisine, ഀ revelry as well as visual and performing arts. The event takes place between ഀ July15th and August3rd at various locations in the city of Toronto. Enjoy the ഀ Calypso, Soca, Reggae, Hip Hop, Chutney, Steel Pan and Brass Bands.
ഀ www.caribana.com

Canada ഀ Day

  ഀ      Every year on the 1st July Canadians, wherever in the ഀ world they are celebrate Canada Day (see ഀ picture C.7.01). ഀ This national holiday celebrates the anniversary of the formation of the union ഀ of the British North America provinces in a federation under the name of Canada ഀ on July 1st 1867.

       Charlottetown ഀ in Prince Edward Island is known as the Birthplace of the Confederation. It ഀ is here that the Fathers of the Confederation met in September1864 to discuss ഀ the unification of Canada. A month later another meeting took place in Quebec ഀ and then a final meeting in London, England in 1866 where all the final details ഀ were set in place. The British government passed the British North America Act, ഀ creating the Dominion of Canada as of July 1st, 1867. The original Dominion ഀ of Canada started with four provinces: New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario and ഀ Quebec. In 1870 the province of Manitoba was formed and it became part of the ഀ confederation that year as did North West Territories. At this point in time ഀ this made Canada one of the largest countries in the world. In 1871 British ഀ Columbia became the latest member after being promised a transcontinental railway ഀ which was duly completed five years later. In 1873 Prince Edward Island joined ഀ after Canada agreed to help with ferry links to the island. This was later replaced ഀ by the building of the Confederation Bridge.

(picture ഀ C.7.01)

       In 1898 ഀ Canada created the Yukon Territory after the discovery of gold in the Klondike. ഀ By forming the territory they were able to form a local government to help maintain ഀ law and order. In 1905 Alberta and Saskatchewan were formed and became members ഀ of the confederation. After a long gap Newfoundland and Labrador finally joined ഀ the confederation in 1949 after World War II left it in economic distress. In ഀ 1982 the repatriation North America Act separated Canada of the British from ഀ England but still allowing it to be a member of the Commonwealth. In 1999 the ഀ territory of Nunavut was formed by dividing the North West Territories according ഀ the the traditional lands of the Inuit. Nunavut was the last area to become ഀ part of the confederation and the new Northwest Territories was born. At this ഀ point in time a new map of Canada was drawn up, designating all the provinces ഀ and territories as we know them today.
ഀ         Since 1868 Canada has celebrated Canada Day, originally known as Dominion Day ഀ and renamed in 1982.

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       Most of ഀ Canada's largest population centers are found in the interior lowlands and portions ഀ of the Atlantic provinces. They are connected to the main cities of the other ഀ regions by an extensive transportation system of railways, air routes and highways ഀ including the impressive Trans-Canada Highway and the transcontinental rail ഀ system. Both represent important engineering feats that begin on an island in ഀ the Atlantic and end on an island in the Pacific. Canada's superb transportation ഀ infrastructure allows access to the far corners of the country and supports ഀ the unique blend of modern conveniences and magnificent wilderness areas.
ഀ         Toronto, Ontario skyline with the CN Tower. Toronto is Canada's most populous ഀ metropolitan area with 5,113,149 people. Canada's 2006 census counted a total ഀ population of 31,612,897, an increase of5.4% since2001. Population growth is ഀ from immigration and, to a lesser extent, natural growth. About three-quarters ഀ of Canada's population live within 150 kilometres (90 mi) of the US border. ഀ A similar proportion live in urban areas concentrated in the Quebec City-Windsor ഀ Corridor (notably the Greater Golden Horseshoe including Toronto and area, Montreal, ഀ and Ottawa), the BC Lower Mainland (consisting of the region surrounding Vancouver), ഀ and the Calgary- Edmonton Corridor in Alberta. According to the 2006 census, ഀ there are 43 ethnic origins that at least one hundred thousand people in Canada ഀ claim in their background.

The largest ഀ ethnic group is English (21%), followed by French (15.8%), Scottish (15.2%), ഀ Irish (13.9%), German (10.2%), Italian (5%), Chinese (4%), Ukrainian (3.6%), ഀ and First Nations (3.5%); approximately, one third of respondents identified ഀ their ethnicity as "Canadian.

       Canada's ഀ aboriginal population is growing almost twice as fast as the Canadian average. ഀ In 2006, 16.2% of the population belonged to non-aboriginal visible According ഀ to Statistics Canada's forecasts, the number of visible minorities in minorities. ഀ

       Canada ഀ is expected to double by 2017. Surveys released in 2007 reveals that virtually ഀ 1 in 5 Canadians (19.8%) are foreign born. Nearly 60% of new immigrants hail ഀ from Asia (including the Middle East).

Canada ഀ has the highest per capita immigration rate in the world,[68] driven by economic ഀ policy and family reunification; Canada also accepts large numbers of refugees. ഀ Newcomers settle mostly in the major urban areas of Toronto, Vancouver and Montreal. ഀ In the 2006 census, there were 5,068,100 people considered to belong to a visible ഀ minority, making up16.2% of the population. Between 2001 and 2006, the visible ഀ minority population rose by 27.2%.
ഀ         Support for religious pluralism is an important part of Canada's political culture. ഀ According to the 2001 census, 77.1% of Canadians identify as being Christians; ഀ of this, Catholics make up the largest group (43.6% of Canadians). The largest ഀ Protestant denomination is the United Church of Canada. About 16.5% of Canadians ഀ declare no religious affiliation, and the remaining6.3% are affiliated with ഀ religions other than Christianity, of which the largest is Islam numbering1.9%, ഀ followed by Judaism at 1.1%.

       Canadian ഀ provinces and territories are responsible for education. Each system is similar ഀ while reflecting regional history, culture and geography. The mandatory school ഀ age ranges between5-7 to 16-18 years, contributing to an adult literacy rate ഀ that is 99%. Postsecondary education is also administered by provincial and ഀ territorial governments, who provide most of the funding; the federal government ഀ administers additional research grants, student loans and scholarships. In 2002, ഀ 43% of Canadians aged between 25 and 64 had post- secondary education; for those ഀ aged 25 to 34 the post-secondary attainment reaches 51%.

British ഀ Columbia

       The population ഀ of British Columbia is 4,074,385, of which 1,119,215 are foreign born. The top ഀ five source countries are China (145,315), United Kingdom (137,460), India (119,265), ഀ Hong Kong(78,060) and Philippines (69,200). According to the census the top ഀ mother tongues in the province are English, Chinese, Punjabi, German and French.


  ഀ      Alberta has a population of 3,256,355 of which 537,030 ഀ are foreign born. The main mother tongues spoken are English, Chinese, German, ഀ French and Punjabi. Top source countries are United Kingdom (60,210), China ഀ (41,500), India (38,610), Philippines (36,630) and the United States.


       In Saskatchewan ഀ the main language is English followed by German, Cree, Ukrainian and French. ഀ Of the 953,845 population 48,160 are foreign born from the following countries: ഀ United Kingdom (7,685), United States (5,425), China (3,400), Germany (2,680) ഀ and Philippines (2,460).


       The province ഀ of Manitoba has a population of 1,133,515. Foreign born numbers equate to 151,230 ഀ from the Philippines (25,485), United Kingdom (15,225), Germany (9,045), Poland ഀ (7,355) and United States (7,090). The top five mother tongues are English, ഀ German, French, Tagalog and Ukrainian.


       The most ഀ populous province with 12,028,895 people is also home to the majority of foreign ഀ born people (3,398,725). The United Kingdom is the country of origin for 321,650 ഀ of them, India (258,530), China (229,945), Italy (198,315) and Philippines (151,380). ഀ The top five mother tongues are English, French, Chinese, Italian and Spanish.


  ഀ      Quebec shows a different pattern to many other locations ഀ with 851,560 foreign born people from the total population of 7,435,905. The ഀ main source country was Italy (65,550) followed by France (59,210), Haiti (56,750), ഀ China (39,190) and Lebanon (34,875). Not surprisingly the top mother tongue ഀ is French, followed by English, Italian, Spanish and Arabic.

New ഀ Brunswick

  ഀ      New Brunswick is home to 719,650 people of which 26,395 ഀ are foreign born. The top five mother tongues are English, French, Mi'kmaq, ഀ Chinese and German. The top source countries are the United States (8,660), ഀ United Kingdom (5,210), Germany (1,775), Netherlands (995) and China (925).

Prince Edward Island

  ഀ      PEI is the smallest of Canada's provinces with a population ഀ of 134,205. Of those 4,785 are foreign born coming from the United States (1,260), ഀ United Kingdom (1,170), Netherlands (495), Germany (225) and Belgium (80). The ഀ top five mother tongues are English, French, Dutch, German and Spanish.

Nova ഀ Scotia

  ഀ      Nova Scotians number 903,090, of those 45,190 are foreign ഀ born. The top mother tongues are English, French, Arabic, Mi'kmaq and German. ഀ The top source countries are the United Kingdom (11,665), United States (7,960), ഀ Germany (1,740).

Newfoundland and Labrador

  ഀ      Of the 500,610 population 8,385 are foreign born. The ഀ top source countries are United Kingdom (2,330), United States (1,400), India ഀ (435), Germany (390) and China (345). The top mother tongues are English, French, ഀ Montagnais-Naskapi, Chinese and Spanish.

Yukon Territories

  ഀ      The Yukon has a population of 30,190 with around 10% ഀ (3,010) being foreign born. The top source countries are the United States (600), ഀ United Kingdom (555), Germany (400), Philippines (160) and Switzerland (125). ഀ Top mother tongues are English, French, German, Athapaskan and Chinese.

Northwest Territories

  ഀ      The population of Northwest territories is 41,060 with ഀ foreign born numbers of 2,810. The main source countries are the Philippines ഀ (555), United Kingdom (345), Viet Nam (245), United States (235) and Germany ഀ (130). The top five mother tongues are English, Dogrib, South Slave, French ഀ and North Slave.


       Nunavut ഀ has the smallest number of foreign born population at just 455 against a total ഀ population of 29,325. Over 20,000 of that population speak native Inuktitut ഀ languages followed by English, French, Tagalog and German. Of the few foreign ഀ born people they originate from the United Kingdom (90), Philippines (45), United ഀ States (45), Germany (30) and Poland (15).

Toronto, ഀ Ontario

  ഀ      Of all the locations in Canada, Toronto is the primary ഀ destination of all immigrants. Of the 5,072,075 population of the city more ഀ than half (2,320,160) are foreign born. The main source countries are India ഀ (221,935), China (191,120), Italy (130,685), Philippines (130,315) and United ഀ Kingdom (125,975). The main mother tongue languages spoken in Toronto are English, ഀ Chinese, Italian, Punjabi and Spanish.

Comprehension Check

1. Who ഀ are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada?
ഀ 2. What are the three main groups of Aboriginal peoples?
ഀ 3. From whom are the M?tis descended?
ഀ 4. Which group of Aboriginal peoples make up more than half the population of ഀ the Northwest Territories and Nunavut?
ഀ 5. Why are the Aboriginal peoples of Canada working toward selfgovernment?

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1. Canada is the ____ largest ഀ country in the world.
ഀ a. first
ഀ b. second
ഀ c. third
ഀ d. most
ഀ 2. ______, _______, ______ are Canada's Prairie Provinces.
ഀ a. British Columbia, Quebec, Ontario
ഀ b. Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba
ഀ c. Northwest Territories, Manitoba, Alberta
ഀ d. British Columbia, Alberta, Saskatchewan
ഀ 3. _________are the youngest and highest mountains in Canada.
ഀ a. the Rocky Mountains
ഀ b. western Cordillera
ഀ c. Canadian Shield
ഀ d. Innutian Mountains
ഀ 4. Choose an appropriate word according to the definition:"…to be born ഀ or native to an area"
ഀ a. inhabited
ഀ b. existed
ഀ c. indigenous
ഀ d. colonized
ഀ 5. Who is perhaps the first European to reach North America?
ഀ a. Vikings
ഀ b. Pilgrims
ഀ c. European trades
ഀ d. Christopher Columbus people
ഀ 6. Who colonized Canada?
ഀ a. Dutch
ഀ b. English
ഀ c. American
ഀ d. French
ഀ 7. How many provinces are there in Canada now?
ഀ a. 8
ഀ b. 10
ഀ c. 9
ഀ d. 11
ഀ 8. How many territories does Canada have?
ഀ a. 2
ഀ b. 3
ഀ c. 1
ഀ d. -
ഀ 9. Choose an appropriate word according to the definition:"…the period ഀ after World War II when many people had children and the economy grew steadily"?
ഀ a. Kid's Up Growth
ഀ b. Parents' Progress
ഀ c. Children's Increase
ഀ d. Baby Boom
ഀ 10. What are three levels of government?
ഀ a. Federal, provincial, municipal
ഀ b. Federal, provincial, territorial
ഀ c. Federal, parliamentarian, provincial
ഀ d. Municipal, parliamentarian, provincial
ഀ 11. The responsibilities of the different levels of government are defined in ഀ Canada's ______
ഀ a. law
ഀ c. code
ഀ d. constitution
ഀ e. National Assembly
ഀ 12. Choose an appropriate word according to the definition:"…a list of ഀ the people who are registed to vote"
ഀ a. vote list
ഀ b. bulletin
ഀ c. registration
ഀ d. voter's list
ഀ 13. Who is the head of the state in Canada's government?
ഀ a. Prime Minister
ഀ b. Queen
ഀ c. Governor-General
ഀ d. none of them
ഀ 14. Schooling on Canada is free in _______ schools
ഀ a. private
ഀ b. public
ഀ c. secondary
ഀ d. religious
ഀ 15. When a Canadian student completes ______, he receives a high school ______.
ഀ a. Grade 10, diploma
ഀ b. Grade 11, certificate
ഀ c. grade 12, diploma
ഀ d. Grade 12, certificate
ഀ 16. The most popular kind of sport in Canada is__________.
ഀ a. figure skating
ഀ b. football
ഀ c. curling
ഀ d. hockey
ഀ 17. What are the Native peoples in Canada?
ഀ a. Metis, Indians
ഀ b. Indians, Eskimos
ഀ c. Metis, Inuit
ഀ d. Inuit, Eskimos
ഀ 18. When do Canadians celebrate Canada's Day?
ഀ a. November 22nd
ഀ b. October 8th
ഀ c. May 18th
ഀ d. July 1st
ഀ 19. Who invented the telephone?
ഀ a. Alexander Bell
ഀ b. Sandford Fleming
ഀ c. John McIntosh
ഀ d. David Suzuki


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